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La ingeniería, motor para salir de la crisis

El número de ingenieros y la capacitación de los mismos,  están ligados al desarrollo del país. Cada año en India se gradúan entre 450 mil y 480 mil ingenieros. Sin embargo, en América Latina, incluido México esa cifra está cercana a los 150 mil. En Corea se gradúa un ingeniero por cada 650 habitantes mientras en Uruguay es uno cada 8000, en Argentina es uno cada 6700, en México es uno cada 6200, en Chile uno cada 4500.

Los ingenieros y la ingeniería pueden ser uno de los motores para salir de la crisis económica derivada del covid19 en América Latina, e incluso la clave para que la región se recupere del rezago en este campo, y que tiene consecuencia sociales, políticas y de productividad.

Construcción de Infraestructuras  

Políticos y economistas debaten en cada crisis cuales son las mejores medidas económicas para superar una recesión económica, y sus consecuencias sociales, económicas y por supuestos políticas. La inversión en infraestructuras es necesaria, y eficaz, aunque desgraciadamente sus efectos se comienzan a percibir en la productividad, la salud de los ciudadanos, que al final es también productividad, y en la economía a medio plazo.

 En cualquier caso, en una región que acumula un retraso en este campo (ferrocarriles, carreteras, puertos, hospitales, energías renovables) y con una población en aumento, las infraestructuras deben estar en cualquier plan de reactivación económico postcovid. Por otro lado, también suele generar en el corto plazo mucha ocupación de mano de obra. Un informe del banco mundial estima que por cada billón (1000 millones) de dólares se generaban de promedio 40.000 empleos/año en la región. Esta cifra sube hasta los 400.000 en el caso de trabajos como mantenimientos de carreteras rurales.  Y a diferencia de otros planes, como subsidios directos a la población, dejan un capital físico para los países que dará réditos en el futuro

Gestionadas y mantenidas de forma eficiente  

No menos importante es la buena planificación de las nuevas infraestructuras, y sobre todo su gestión. El mantenimiento, financiación y gestión con criterios económicos y de rentabilidad directa y social debe ser un aspecto central en las mismas. Los ingenieros puede ser buenos gestores. Deben serlo. Las infraestructuras bien planificadas y gestionadas suelen terminar por pagarse así mismas. Un punto débil en la región que deben subsanarse mediante formación de los ingenieros y haciendo un benchmarking con los mejores ejemplos internacionales

Atrayendo inversión privada o extranjera

Las necesidades de mejoras en las infraestructuras de América Latina, y el déficit generado por la subinversión de los últimos años, hace que sea inasumible por el sector público su financiación completa. Especialmente ahora tras la crisis del Covid-19.

El BID calcula que la región debería dedicar un 2,5% de su PIB, unos 150.000 millones de dólares al año durante una década y media para recuperar su retraso en este campo. Por eso es importante relanzar en los próximos meses proyecto de colaboración pública privada (PPP) tanto con empresas nacionales, regionales o internacionales. La construcción de nuevas infraestructuras, con garantía de que serán bien gestionadas, en la región puede ser una fuente de una fuerte entrada de capitales a largo plazo en un momento en el que la tendencia de la región es la salida de capital.

Y generando campeones regionales

Este desarrollo, además, si es acompañado de la formación de los profesionales de la ingeniería locales mediante la formación en las últimas técnicas de construcción y gestión de estos activos físicos, permitiría al mismo tiempo consolidar empleos y una clase social de profesionales,  al mismo tiempo que impulsaría a empresas del sector a que se conviertan en campeones nacionales. En el ranking Global Power of Constructions de la consultora Deloitte, apenas el grupo Carso de México se coloca en el top 50 mundial. Crear campeones regionales, que puedan dar el salto para competir con las grandes compañía chinas, estadounidenses o europeas dentro y fuera de Latinoamérica es vital. No hay países prósperos sin empresas en este ramo y esto se consigue, en parte, gracias a la formación especializada de sus profesionales.


Juan Antonio Cuartero.
Socio Director de Structuralia.

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