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Educación e Infraestructura: las claves para competir internacionalmente

Juan Antonio Cuartero, Socio director de www.structuralia.com


No por repetirlo, es menos verdad. Las infraestructuras, y la formación de la fuerza laboral, son dos claves vitales para conseguir que un país sea competitivo a nivel internacional, y por consecuencia pueda generar más empleos, y mejores salarios, para sus ciudadanos. Lo desvelan varios informes a lo largo del año, y de ello son conscientes todos los agentes sociales, políticos y económicos de un país, así como los propios profesionales y trabajadores.

Sin embargo, es llamativo que, a pesar de ello, haya grandes proyectos como el Metro de Bogotá, el Nuevo Aeropuerto Internacional de Ciudad de México (NAICM), las nuevas carreteras de Perú, o los puertos y trenes de Argentina, que siguen con retrasos y disputas. La competitividad básicamente es hacer más y mejor en menos tiempo.

Esto supone, en lo concreto, que exportar cuesta menos tiempo y dinero gracias a puertos más eficientes o que los trabajadores llegan de forma más rápida y descansada a su centro de trabajo gracias a una red de infraestructuras más competente y eficaz. Como contraejemplo a lo anterior, la realidad es que en muchos países los trabajadores se demoran mucho tiempo en el trayecto a sus trabajos, lo cual es, a todas luces, negativo para la economía en general. Porque la competitividad de un país, en última instancia, se traduce en aspectos muy concretos de la vida de los ciudadanos.

Llegar al centro de trabajo, aunque parezca increíble, es más barato y eficiente en Europa que en Iberoamérica y eso supone que las empresas puedan producir más y mejor, a pesar de que los salarios sean claramente más elevados.

Chile, el país latinoamericano que ocupa la posición más alta en el ranking de Competitividad de WEF (World Economic Forum) 2019, ostenta el puesto 33, subiendo dos puesto desde 2016, México es el segundo mejor posicionado con el puesto 48, tres puestos menos que en 2016. Uruguay, medalla de bronce regional, ocupa el escalón 54, con Colombia (57), Costa Rica (62) Perú (65) y Panamá (66).

Sin cifras que se mantienen estables en los últimos años, incluso descienden en algunos cosas. O dicho de otra forma, no se avanza.

Otros países de la región latinoamericana, como República Dominicana (78) mejoró ligeramente, Argentina en el puesto 83 o Ecuador en el 90 descendieron en su pontaje. Paraguay, Bolivia y Centroamérica, se encuentra en el puesto 97 o inferior.

Este estancamiento de la competitividad regional, incluso en países que están invirtiendo mucho en infraestructuras (aeropuertos, puertos, carreteras o metros) manda un mensaje claro: no basta solo con invertir en infraestructuras para crecer en el mercado; hay que hacerlo más y mejor que los competidores, que en el caso de Iberoamérica se trata sobre todo de países emergentes de Asia o el Este de Europa.

Aunque también son claves la gobernanza pública o la incertidumbre económica, la realidad nos demuestra que es difícil que haya progreso para un territorio sin infraestructuras y, por otro lado, también es complicado que existan magníficas infraestructuras sin ciudadanos debidamente capacitados. Por este motivo, llama la atención la poca importancia que a nivel político suele darse a estos dos temas. Por todo ello, nunca siempre es buen momento para recordar que la inversión en infraestructuras es una apuesta a futuro, no un gasto.

Destinar hoy fondos a la creación y mejora de carreteras, ferrocarriles o puertos, generará ingresos y empleos mañana. Y la formación de los profesionales es clave para aprovechar al máximo el potencial de estas inversiones e impulsar la competitividad y el desarrollo de la región. Si comparamos el último informe de competitividad del IMD entre los países con infraestructuras de mayor nivel y la renta per cápita nacional en la región de América Latina, se aprecia una correlación clara entre ambas.

Por tanto, podemos decir que invertir en infraestructura –y, por consiguiente, invertir en educación de la población para asumir los empleos derivados de esa inversión- es invertir en un futuro mejor para el país y los ciudadanos, y en ello merece la pena insistir.

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