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Región en Blanco y Negro

Energía solar: La revolución que impulsa el desarrollo de Honduras

*Hilen Meirovich y Christian Parra

Hace seis años, los ejecutivos decidieron instalar paneles solares en su empresa, para generar su propia energía. La promesa era reducir en un 20% su consumo de energía y además conseguir una importante reducción de emisiones de gases contaminantes. Y así fue.

Hoy, Invema obtiene ahorros de energía de hasta el 30% en su planilla eléctrica y reinvierte en su foco de negocio: el reciclaje, al punto que ahora fabrica las botellas que Coca-Cola usa en Centroamérica. “Estamos muy orgullosos, porque gracias a los paneles solares se abrieron los canales con BID Invest lo que nos permitió hacer las inversiones que soñábamos”, comenta George Gatlin, gerente de Invema, localizada en la ciudad norteña de San Pedro Sula.

Invema se suma a varias empresas y consorcios privados que le apostaron a la energía fotovoltaica desde que el Honduras decidió reformar el subsector eléctrico, para revertir la matriz de térmica a renovable. Las reformas comenzaron en el 2012, cuando la generación por medio de combustibles fósiles era del 70% versus 30% renovable. Esta hegemonía térmica se traducía en una factura petrolera cada vez más alta, mayores emisiones de dióxido de carbono, tarifas hasta US$0,30 por kilovatio (KW) producido y racionamientos frecuentes.

Tras las reformas, encabezadas por el gobierno y con la asesoría del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), vino el auge de la energía renovable, hasta revertir la matriz energética completamente con respecto al 2012. El último reporte trimestral de 2018, del Banco Central de Honduras (BCH) registra una generación de 75% de las fuentes renovables con un 11% de participación de los proyectos fotovoltaicos. Este porcentaje se tradujo en 433 megavatios (MW) de capacidad instalada a finales de 2016, colocando a Honduras a la cabeza en Centroamérica y en tercer lugar en América Latina, después de Chile y México. “Se está viendo una revolución del sector eléctrico, no solo en Honduras, sino a nivel mundial, porque el almacenamiento de energía está cambiando el concepto”, destaca Carlos Jácome, especialista en energía del BID y quien ha participado en el proceso de reformas en Honduras. “El Banco apoyó con estudios y financiamientos blandos. Posteriormente, esos ahorros permitieron mejorar la productividad de estas empresas, porque lo que ahora ya no pagan en energía lo pueden destinar para ampliar sus negocios”, comenta.

Desde 2012, el BID y BID Invest han brindado asistencia técnica al comercio hondureño, sectores industriales e institucionales para investigar la viabilidad técnica y económica en los proyectos fotovoltaicos. A la fecha, se han realizado 22 estudios, para proyectos que van desde los 40 kilovatios (kW) a casi 3 MW de capacidad instalada.

Los informes oficiales reflejan que el interés en proyectos fotovoltaicos y el tamaño de las matrices estudiadas se han incrementado regularmente, ya que el costo de instalación ha disminuido en casi un 40% durante los últimos cinco años.

Detrás de esta innovación existen tres componentes combinados que dieron como resultado una fórmula exitosa: por un lado, el impulso del gobierno creando las condiciones favorables para la inversión, la decisión de empresas emprendedoras y la capacidad del BID para evaluar y financiar los proyectos.

Las primeras inversiones en el desarrollo fotovoltaico en Honduras fueron de riesgo compartido para BID Invest y sus clientes. No obstante, lo que marcó la diferencia es que el Banco cuenta con las capacidades técnicas para evaluar las inversiones y apoyar a sus clientes.

La experiencia hondureña alienta el emprendimiento y nuevos mercados al tiempo que demuestra que BID Invest es el socio de elección de los mercados innovadores. Este tipo de experiencias deberían ser replicadas en la región.

Las primeras inversiones fotovoltaicas comenzaron en 2015, cuando se instalaron 388 MW y 45 MV más en 2016, según los informes de la estatal Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica (ENEE). Según la ENEE, el mercado hondureño de energía solar comercial e industrial es bastante diferente de lo que era en 2012 comenzando por los cambios en las tarifas de electricidad (entre 11 y 18 centavos el kW por hora), costos de instalación de los paneles, regulaciones legales, y la disponibilidad de instaladores en la región. A esto se suma, las capacidades nacionales, que se desarrollaron con la instalación y administración de los proyectos fotovoltaicos. “Antes, si no venía un canadiense, un español o un costarricense a supervisar la obra el proyecto no avanzaba, ahora todos esos puestos los han ido fortaleciendo los mismos hondureños. Hay una sensación agradable para la inversión”, señala Elsia Paz, presidenta de la Asociación Hondureña de Energía Renovable (EHER), una de las entidades que surgieron en el marco de estas reformas.

Descarga la historia completa aquí: “Energía solar. La revolución que impulsa el desarrollo de Honduras


Artículo publicado originalmente en Negocios Sostenibles, el blog de BID Invest.

 

*Hilen Meirovich
es especialista líder en Cambio Climático de BID Invest.

*Christian Parra
trabaja en el equipo de Cambio Climático de BID Invest.

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