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¿Cómo la personalidad puede ser un factor en la identificación de clientes con buen crédito?

La brecha de financiamiento para las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYME) en América Latina y el Caribe se estimó en US$1,2 billones en 2017, casi una cuarta parte del total para los mercados emergentes globales. Si esta brecha fuese un país, no solo sería un desierto de crédito para la mayoría de sus habitantes, sino que desplazaría a México de la posición número 15 en la lista de las economías más grandes del mundo en términos del producto interno bruto (PIB) nominal.

A nivel macro, esta brecha se debe principalmente a debilidades y cuellos de botella en la infraestructura financiera de la región—que incluye el grupo de instituciones, tecnologías, regulaciones y estándares que permiten la intermediación financiera efectiva—como sistemas de pago eficientes, burós de crédito confiables, registros de colateral unificados y sistemas judiciales que hagan cumplir los contratos legales. A nivel de las transacciones, esto significa que es difícil para los bancos evaluar el riesgo crediticio de las MIPYME, que a menudo son administradas por propietarios únicos que no cuentan con historial crediticio, estados financieros auditados o activos para utilizar como garantías. Y entonces, la brecha se amplía.

Una nueva forma de evaluar el riesgo crediticio

Las compañías fintech pueden ayudar a los bancos y gobiernos de la región a superar estos cuellos de botella ofreciendo servicios e información esenciales de forma novedosa. Por ejemplo, en lugar de depender de notarios públicos dispersos para el registro de garantías, los gobiernos podrían utilizar blockchain para crear registros seguros, centralizados y de fácil acceso sobre derechos de garantía. Del mismo modo, en lugar de depender solo de los burós de crédito, las instituciones financieras podrían aprovechar la riqueza de datos que las fintech pueden capturar vía psicometría, pagos digitales, uso de teléfonos móviles o redes sociales para ayudar a evaluar el riesgo crediticio de clientes potenciales.

BID Invest y el Fondo Multilateral de Inversiones (FOMIN) tuvieron la oportunidad de probar una de estas soluciones en Perú. Junto con el Entrepreneurial Finance Lab (EFL), previo a su fusión con Lenddo en 2017, probamos la herramienta de psicométrica de riesgo crediticio de EFL—por primera vez en América Latina a nivel comercial—con un banco que buscaba expandir su cartera de MIPYME. Como parte de este piloto, BID Invest proporcionó una garantía de riesgo compartido al banco para cubrir una parte de su nueva exposición crediticia.

Siguiendo prácticas de contratación que por mucho tiempo han usado los empleadores, la herramienta evalúa lo que se esconde a la vista: las personalidades y el carácter de las personas—como la responsabilidad, la honestidad y la inteligencia general—como predictores claves de la voluntad y capacidad de pago de los clientes potenciales.

Los empresarios sin historial crediticios son buenos clientes

Los resultados de esta experiencia piloto muestran que el carácter cuenta al identificar buenos clientes de crédito. Esto fue particularmente evidente entre los solicitantes de préstamos sin historial crediticio, es decir, los empresarios con archivos “delgados” que nunca habían tenido un crédito o no habían tenido un crédito reciente con una institución financiera formal, que accedieron a financiamiento sin afectar el riesgo de la cartera del banco.

Esto permitió determinar que los clientes anteriormente ignorados por el sistema están, de hecho, pagando su deuda. Más específicamente, los solicitantes sin antecedentes crediticios que fueron aprobados por la herramienta EFL tenían cuatro veces más probabilidades de usar crédito dentro de los seis meses siguientes a la aplicación que aquellos que fueron rechazados (72% versus 18%, respectivamente).

Dada la necesidad insatisfecha de acceso a capital entre las MIPYME de la región, y la oportunidad de negocio sin explotar que representan para las instituciones financieras, las herramientas psicométricas de evaluación crediticia ofrecen una solución práctica, tanto para los bancos como para los potenciales clientes, particularmente en países donde los burós de crédito están en proceso de consolidación.

Y, a medida que las instituciones financieras buscan innovar frente a la creciente disrupción digital y exploran nuevas formas de ampliar su base de clientes, herramientas como estas pueden ayudarlas a obtener un perfil de riesgo crediticio de clientes potenciales más completo y mitigar el riesgo que representa el otorgar préstamos a las MIPYME, al tiempo que ayudan a la región a cerrar la brecha de un billón de dólares.

Para obtener más información, consulte ¿Son las herramientas psicométricas un método de selección viable para préstamos a pequeñas y medianas empresas? Evidencia de Perú, parte de la Serie Desarrollo a través del Sector Privado de BID Invest, o un resumen ejecutivo que sintetiza este estudio aquí.


Acerca del Autor / Irani Arraiz

Irani Arraiz
Irani Arráiz es economista en la División de Efectividad en el Desarrollo de BID Invest. Sus áreas de experticia incluyen evaluación de políticas y finanzas y desarrollo del sector privado. Ha publicado varios artículos en revistas académicas internacionales relacionados con la efectividad de programas destinados a aumentar la competitividad del sector privado en América Latina. Antes de BID Invest, Irani trabajó en el Fondo Multilateral de Inversiones y en la Oficina de Evaluación y Supervisión del BID. Irani tiene un Ph.D. en Economía de la Universidad de Maryland en College Park, la designación de CFA, y un MBA del Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración en Venezuela. Irani se graduó con honores como ingeniero electrónico en la Universidad Simón Bolívar en Caracas.

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