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Región en Blanco y Negro

La transparencia es un buen negocio

Uno de cada tres latinoamericanos reconoce haber pagado al menos un soborno para obtener algún tipo de beneficio en servicios públicos. Junto a ello, grandes escándalos de corrupción se han destapado durante los últimos años afectando tanto a gobiernos como a empresas privadas. La corrupción y la falta de transparencia están presentes a pequeña y a gran escala, a nivel individual, gubernamental y empresarial, e inciden negativamente en la productividad y en el crecimiento económico de los países.

Por ello, el compromiso entre el sector público y el sector privado   para promover la transparencia será uno de los ejes centrales de la III Cumbre Empresarial de las Américas que se celebrará en Lima, Perú, los próximos 12 y 13 de abril. La cumbre contará con la presencia de los principales jefes de Estado y gerentes generales de esta región con el fin de promover el crecimiento económico, las inversiones público-privadas y la facilitación del comercio para impulsar el desarrollo sostenible e inclusivo de América Latina y el Caribe.

El costo de no ser transparente

El Fondo Monetario Internacional afirma que costo anual de los sobornos representa cerca del 2% del Producto Interior Bruto (PIB) global y la OCDE estima que la corrupción reduce un 5% las inversiones y aumenta un 10% el coste de hacer negocios.

A pesar de que numerosos países de América Latina y el Caribe han ampliado las medidas para combatir la corrupción y aumentar la transparencia, los indicadores al respecto no han mostrado mejoras significativas en los últimos 15 años. Este es uno de los problemas más serios que tienen que enfrentar tanto el sector público como el privado de esta parte del mundo.

La región se ha visto afectada por una serie de escándalos que han tenido un severo impacto reputacional y económico. Por ejemplo, en algunos casos se han suspendido obras de infraestructura, afectando a numerosas partes ajenas a los hechos, como las pequeñas y medianas empresas, los proveedores, los trabajadores, las entidades financieras y la ciudadanía en general. Algo que la región no se puede permitir ya que necesita aumentar sus proyectos de infraestructura para impulsar el desarrollo económico.

Una buena alternativa: compromiso público-privado

La situación actual nos ofrece una gran oportunidad para implementar reformas en el sector público y privado que ayuden a revertir la crisis de confianza entre ciudadanos, inversores y gobernantes y a fomentar el crecimiento y el desarrollo económico. El compromiso entre la sociedad civil y los sectores público y privado es imprescindible para sacar adelante las medidas anticorrupción. En la región hay buenos ejemplos, por ejemplo, la iniciativa del Instituto Ethos en Brasil, llamada Pacto Empresarial pela Integridade e contra a Corrupcão o la iniciativa de Transparencia Internacional de Pactos de Integridad.

Desde un punto de vista institucional, es fundamental apuntar a la efectividad de los marcos legales para fortalecer el Estado de Derecho. En este sentido, la tecnología es un instrumento estratégico para expandir el acceso a la información, reducir la discrecionalidad indebida y los costos de transacción. La efectividad del marco institucional también debe alcanzar a los organismos de control. Esta agenda incluye desde la prevención de los conflictos de interés hasta el seguimiento del gasto público. El BID ha apoyado a varios países en la región en implementar plataformas de información para la visualización del gasto y la inversión, como es el caso de Maparegalias en Colombia y Mapainversiones en Costa Rica.

Por su parte, el sector privado, se encuentra en una posición privilegiada para apoyar las reformas del sector público, dado que la generación de un ecosistema transparente, honesto, abierto y competitivo es crucial para el desarrollo normal de los negocios.

Una de las herramientas fundamentales para conseguirlo es el compromiso público privado, para lograr un mayor crecimiento económico en la región. Esto puede ayudar a resolver el déficit de infraestructura de la región, sin generar déficit fiscal en los gobiernos y sin que estos pierdan la propiedad de los bienes o servicios públicos.

Para mejorar el funcionamiento de estas asociaciones, el uso de tecnologías como el big-data serán claves para la evaluación, divulgación, innovación y eficiencia operacional, todo bajo un marco más transparente para estos proyectos. Por eso hoy existen iniciativas como Plataforma Source, de la Fundación para Infraestructura Sostenible y los bancos multilaterales de desarrollo. Esta herramienta funciona como hoja de ruta de los proyectos y permite mantener comunicación continua con el sector privado y la sociedad civil.

Adicionalmente, el sector privado debe tomar medidas concretas que incluyan en su desarrollo de códigos de gobernanza corporativa, aspectos como los conflictos de intereses, contribuciones políticas y la transparencia de los datos sobre beneficiarios finales, entre otros. Este tipo de acciones permiten asegurar una actividad empresarial transparente, sin sombras de sospecha, y que actuarán en beneficio de ciudadanos, negocios y gobiernos favoreciendo, al mismo tiempo, el desarrollo económico. Un buen negocio para todos.


Este blog fue inicialmente publicado en el Blog Negocios Sostenibles.


Roberto de Michele, Especialista Principal del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo y dirige el cluster de transparencia e integridad del BID.
Luiz Gabriel Azevedo, Jefe de la División de Asuntos Ambientales, Sociales y de Gobernanza de BID Invest.

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