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Cuatro desafíos que enfrentan las construcciones del futuro

Por: Jaime García Alba

En los 60, los Supersónicos nos mostraron una ciudad del futuro en la que la contaminación y la explotación de los recursos no renovables no existían. 20 años más tarde, cuando ya se comenzaba a escuchar de los problemas medioambientales, Blade Runner mostró una versión más pesimista de 2019: una ciudad con innumerables rascacielos, sobrepoblación y niveles de contaminación altísimos. Hoy ya contamos con mucha de la tecnología inteligente de los Supersónicos pero, para evitar la ciudad distópica de Ridley Scott, se necesitan construcciones sostenibles.

En 2016 la Comisión Global de Economía y Clima determinó que la única forma para crecer a futuro y enfrentar la brecha actual es con infraestructura sostenible. De acuerdo al estudio “Cruzando el puente hacia la inversión en infraestructura sostenible. Explorando formas para cruzar”, del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) y Mercer, para poder desarrollar este tipo de construcciones es necesario vencer al menos cuatro desafíos clave:

1. Falta de familiaridad

¿Qué es infraestructura sostenible? Muchos inversores carecen todavía de información para identificar con claridad qué es y qué no, y también cuál es la oportunidad de negocio. Esto dificulta el aumento de este tipo de construcciones.

La infraestructura sostenible es planeada, construida y operada para cumplir con los estándares cambiantes de gobernabilidad, sociales, medioambientales, económicos y financieros, a través del tiempo. Por eso, el rol de las multilaterales y los organismos públicos es educar, informar y proveer productos financieros adecuados, para transformar los negocios actuales a una economía de bajas emisiones de carbono y resiliente al cambio climático.

2. Limitada estandarización de herramientas y enfoques

Por tratarse de una mega-tendencia en pleno desarrollo, existe una excesiva fragmentación en los estándares, principios e iniciativas de sostenibilidad. Sumado a esto, no existe información disponible adecuada para saber cuáles son los criterios ambientales, sociales y de gobernanza para compañías no listadas en sus respectivos mercados de valores, por ejemplo, lo que dificulta el trabajo de los inversionistas a la hora de identificar qué proyectos son sostenibles.

Además, la falta de información eleva los costos transaccionales. Por eso, el Grupo BID está desarrollando y promoviendo la adopción de principios harmonizados, y trabajando con inversionistas para facilitar las discusiones sobre las barreras que actualmente existen para la infraestructura sostenible. El objetivo es generar soluciones útiles, como instrumentos financieros innovadores en los mercados locales, y asociaciones público-privadas y concesiones que faciliten la participación del sector privado.

3. Carencia de una política coordinada

Otro de los puntos fundamentales es contar con regulaciones consistentes y un compromiso para acatarlas en toda la región y en todos los sectores. Seguir lineamientos como el Acuerdo de París y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la ONU es clave para no disminuir el interés de los inversionistas en medidas cómo la adopción de energías limpias.

Para América Latina y el Caribe, el desarrollo de instrumentos adaptados a nuestra realidad es clave. En este caso, NDC Invest, del Grupo BID, es una solución para que los países puedan implementar estos lineamientos, a través de una plataforma simple que permite preparar portafolios de proyectos sostenibles y bancarizables, e incrementar el acceso a recursos concesionales, entre otros beneficios.

4. Falta de herramientas y enfoque en resiliencia climática

A la fecha no se ha priorizado cómo se debería realizar la adaptación climática, tanto en términos de la infraestructura como de las herramientas financieras para invertir en ella. Sin embargo, hoy existen diversas herramientas financieras para adaptarse al cambio climático. Por ejemplo, BID Invest cuenta con herramientas de financiamiento climático mixto que permiten afrontar estos desafíos y adoptar modalidades resistentes al cambio climático con bajas emisiones de carbono.

Para desarrollar las construcciones del futuro se necesita invertir al menos US$6 billones anuales en infraestructura sostenible para nuestra región. Esto permitirá apoyar el desarrollo económico de América Latina y el Caribe, crecer al ritmo necesario y evitar que nuestras ciudades se conviertan en distopías futuristas.

*Este blog fue publicado originalmente en Negocios Sostenibles, de BID Invest.


Jaime García Alba

Jaime García Alba lidera el programa de Servicios de Asesoría y Financiamiento Mixto de BID Invest, cuyo objetivo es establecer la sostenibilidad como eje central en las inversiones del sector privado de América Latina y el Caribe. Anteriormente, se desempeñó como jefe de Informes de sostenibilidad y Financiamiento privado para la sostenibilidad en el Pacto Global de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), cargo donde coordinó la participación de negocios e inversionistas institucionales en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la ONU, la Conferencia sobre el Financiamiento del Desarrollo y la Conferencia sobre Cambio Climático (COP 21).

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