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La tecnología que viene a transformar la banca

Vas a cenar con un amigo, llega la cuenta y te das cuenta de que has dejado tu cartera en casa. ¿Qué haces? Le pides a tu amigo que cubra tu parte y le sugieres pagar la próxima cena. O no. Para ajustar las cuentas pendientes, hoy en día, uno ya no tiene que esperar hasta el próximo encuentro, sino que puede usar aplicaciones para celulares que permiten hacer pagos al instante. Venmo es una de las más usadas en Estados Unidos, pero también las hay en Brasil (PicPay) y en otros países de América Latina.

Las llamadas tecnologías financieras (o fintech), que son la base de estas aplicaciones, no solo facilitan el envío de dinero, sino que están revolucionando toda la industria financiera. A nivel global, se estima que atraerán inversiones de unos US$30.000 millones en 2016.

En América Latina, la inversión ha sido más moderada, pero en países como Brasil, México, Colombia y Chile las fintech también están entrando fuerte, y no solo en el mercado de las transferencias interpersonales. A nivel empresa están ofreciendo servicios que van desde el financiamiento colectivo (crowdfunding) y los préstamos hasta la gestión empresarial y el factoring.

¿Eso qué significa para los bancos tradicionales?

A largo plazo, las fintech representan una oportunidad para los bancos establecidos de América Latina. Habrá segmentos como las transferencias bancarias que se pueden ver impactados por los nuevos actores digitales. Sin embargo, las fintech pueden ser socios importantes y, de hecho, dependen de la infraestructura armada por los bancos tradicionales.

Por mucho que una persona mande fondos a otra usando Venmo, PicPay, PayPal u otro servicio, al final el dinero todavía termina en una cuenta bancaria.

Es más, las tecnologías financieras abren nuevas oportunidades de negocio para los bancos si saben incorporarlas en sus modelos de negocio. Incluso hay empresas que se dedican específicamente a ayudarlos en eso.

Matchi, un servicio de emparejamiento entre bancos tradicionales y líderes de la innovación financiera, trabaja con gigantes de la industria como CaixaBank, Citi y Standard Bank. Desde 2015, también colabora con KPMG conectando sus clientes con las miles de fintech que innovan en todo el mundo.

Aprovechar las fintech para llegar a las pequeñas empresas

En América Latina, una de las grandes oportunidades para los bancos tradicionales está en el aprovechamiento del mercado de las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MiPyME). Hay un déficit estimado de entre US$210.000 millones y US$250.000 millones en el financiamiento de este segmento y las empresas de tecnología financiera están encontrando maneras creativas de atenderlas.

Como muchas MiPyME no tienen los activos ni la documentación que se suele pedir a la hora de solicitar un préstamo, las fintech están desarrollando formas alternativas para evaluar el riesgo de que una empresa no repague un crédito. Usando datos fáciles de recopilar como el uso del celular, el pago de la cuenta de luz y hasta el comportamiento en Facebook, en algunos casos han podido aumentar del 3% al 82% la tasa de aprobación de un préstamo.

Tal vez la realidad en América Latina aún diste de haber llegado al pago generalizado con aplicaciones como Venmo. Según los propios bancos, sin embargo, en 2020 más del 60% de sus clientes a nivel mundial usarán aplicaciones móviles al menos una vez al mes para acceder a servicios financieros.

Para los bancos de la región, esta realidad representa una oportunidad única que pueden aprovechar forjando alianzas con las compañías de tecnología financiera. Al incorporar ideas innovadoras como las alternativas a la calificación crediticia tradicional, pueden colocarse a la delantera y así convertirse en los bancos del futuro.

Para saber más de la tecnología financiera y cómo está abriendo nuevos caminos de financiamiento, accede a nuestro informe sobre La Revolución Fintech.


Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el blog de Negocios Sostenibles del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

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