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Tres componentes para lograr centros históricos sostenibles

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La comunidad internacional está en el trabajo articular un nuevo marco global de desarrollo histórico que gira en torno a la sostenibilidad, un elemento clave para cualquier plan de futuro.

Los vínculos entre la conservación del patrimonio cultural y el desarrollo sostenible tienen un amplio reconocimiento. La tarea de crear un marco práctico y participativo para el desarrollo urbano depende de la resolución de las tensiones entre los objetivos de conservación del patrimonio, por un lado, y las necesidades de desarrollo socio-económico y las aspiraciones de las comunidades locales, por otro.

Con el fin de comprender plenamente la relación entre el patrimonio cultural y el desarrollo sostenible, la idea de “patrimonio” debe entenderse en su sentido más amplio. La conservación física de los bienes inmuebles y urbanísticos por sí sola no ayudará a preservar el patrimonio cultural de una comunidad.

En las últimas dos décadas, hemos experimentado la urbanización sin precedentes. Se espera que sólo en Asia para existan 800 millones de residentes urbanos en los próximos 15 años. El Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, Ban Ki-moon, ha declarado que la batalla por la sostenibilidad se ganará o se perderá en la forma en que diseñamos nuestras ciudades.

Los centros históricos ofrecen características que bien podrían servir de guía para nuevos y futuros proyectos urbanos: son compactos, de uso mixto, mezclan poblaciones de diferentes los ingresos y ofrecen espacios públicos vibrantes.

El desarrollo urbano que integra el patrimonio cultural es más sostenible, diverso e inclusivo. Conservar el patrimonio tiene muchos enfoques y objetivos económicos como culturales, en el sentido que refuerza la identidad nacional, el conocimiento acumulado y es motivo de orgullo como herencia de las generaciones anteriores. También porque, como explicaremos adelante, el patrimonio revitalizado es una fuente de oportunidades económicas.

Centro Histórico de Salvador (Pelourinho) Na foto: Turistas aproveitam o Verão 2011 no Pelourinho Foto: Rafael Martins/AGECOM
Centro Histórico de Salvador (Pelourinho)
Na foto: Turistas aproveitam o Verão 2011 no Pelourinho
Foto: Rafael Martins/AGECOM

Centro Histórico de Salvador (Pelourinho) Na foto: Turistas aproveitam o Verão 2011 no Pelourinho Foto: Rafael Martins/AGECOM

Centro Histórico de Salvador (Pelourinho) Na foto: Turistas aproveitam o Verão 2011 no Pelourinho Foto: Rafael Martins/AGECOM

Las recomendaciones para el paisaje urbano histórico de la UNESCO (RPUH) son un conjunto práctico de directrices de planificación que integra el patrimonio cultural con el desarrollo comunitario. Actualmente se están implementando en muchos lugares alrededor del mundo. Esas directrices exponen los fundamentos para hacer que el patrimonio histórico juegue un papel más central en el desarrollo económico, la reducción de la pobreza y la interacción con la comunidad.

Esas normas declaran al patrimonio cultural como motor de desarrollo económico inclusivo, motor de la cohesión social y la equidad, y como un medio para mejorar la habitabilidad y la sostenibilidad de una zona urbana. Esas directrices incluyen tres componentes principales.

En primer lugar se destaca la capacidad del patrimonio cultural para fomentar el desarrollo económico inclusivo. Los centros históricos poseen un valor inherente por su singularidad. Eso promueve la creatividad que se ha vuelto cada vez más una parte fundamental de la actividad urbana. Museos, galerías de arte, teatros y una gran variedad de festivales culturales alrededor de los centros históricos ofrecen una oportunida de revitalizar la economía mediante la promoción del patrimonio inmaterial.

El turismo sostenible, gestionado y regulado por las comunidades locales, pueden proporcionar puestos de trabajo y empleo para las comunidades locales.

El segundo componente principal es el patrimonio cultural como al facilitador de la cohesión social, la inclusión y la equidad. El patrimonio tiene el poder de fortalecer a las comunidades en que los ciudadanos se asocian con su ambiente histórico, con una identidad compartida y un sentido de apego al lugar y la vida cotidiana. Es importante destacar que esto debe incluir a las minorías en desventaja o comunidades socialmente excluidas.

Los centros históricos han mostrado de sobra su capacidad para atraer el turismo, promover el empleo y la inversión local y externa. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de revitalización genera espacio para construir entendimientos, rescatar valores y tradiciones.

En tercer lugar, los barrios y centros históricos pueden mejorar la habitabilidad, así como la sostenibilidad de las zonas urbanas. Por ejemplo, las zonas históricas son amigables con los peatones y promueven un ambiente urbano compacto que incentiva las prácticas más adecuadas de manejo de los recursos.

La reutilización de las estructuras históricas adapatadas para la vida moderna puede ser particularmente eficiente en la política de uso del territorio. Los centros históricos son de uso mixto y de usos múltiples lo cual les da un aspecto integral.

La integración de la tecnología moderna con el conocimiento local tradicional y las prácticas de gestión de ecosistemas en los centros históricos han contribuido a la sostenibilidad del medio ambiente y son factores importantes de la resiliencia moderna. Las prácticas locales y tradicionales de prestación de servicios básicos pueden ser un recurso valioso para la promoción de la sostenibilidad urbana.

Nuestra generación está en el camino de generar una nueva agenda urbana. Es un mometo importante para recordar la lección de los centros históricos: sitios compactos y lleno de vitalidad cultural.

La Ciudad de México, con uno de los centros históricos mejor conservados del mundo, será la sede del Seminario Internacional “Viva el Centro”, que reunirá a autoridades y expertos en centros históricos de América Latina a partir del 18 de noviembre de 2015. En la cita se discutirán las estrategias para hacer del patrimonio histórico una parte integral de las políticas urbanas del siglo XXI.

*Jeff Soule es miembro directivo de la American Planning Association.


 

Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el Blog Urbe y Orbe del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

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