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¿Sabes cómo financiar tu empresa en 8 minutos?

La “sabiduría de las masas” puede ser apabullante, como lo demuestra Pebble Time, un reloj de pulsera inteligente cuya campaña de Financiamiento Compartido solicitó inicialmente 500 mil dólares de apoyo, y obtuvo 20 millones de dólares por la Internet; Coolest Cooler solicitó 50 mil y obtuvo 13.2 millones; el juego de cartas “Explosive Kittens” llegó a su meta (10 mil dólares) en apenas 8 minutos, alcanzando 8.7 millones y respaldado por 106 mil inversionistas.

El Financiamiento Compartido es una red de financiación colectiva, normalmente online, que permite a inversionistas hacer aportes a título de donación, préstamo o inversión, en proyectos de negocios o desarrollo de productos innovadores. Este mecanismo abre oportunidades a nuevos emprendimientos “Startups” para financiar sus proyectos, usualmente de alto riesgo. Este riesgo elevado hacía poco atractivo este negocio a la banca comercial por sus altos costos transaccionales y de evaluación de crédito. La innovación tecnológica ha cambiado esta situación, al reducir radicalmente los costos de la intermediación financiera, atomizando el riesgo entre una multitud de pequeños inversionistas y eliminando los costos de intermediación, a través de plataformas virtuales que calibran la calidad de los proyectos y el origen de los fondos aportados por inversionistas. Esto ha causado toda una innovación disruptiva schumpeteriana sobre la industria financiera, similar a la que ha impactado en otras industrias pertenecientes a la “Economía de la Colaboración”, tales como el transporte (Ej. Uber) o la hotelería (Ej. VRBO y Airbnb).

El Financiamiento Compartido ha tenido un crecimiento explosivo, por decir lo menos. Entre 2009 y 2015 esta industria ha duplicado su tamaño año tras año, en promedio. En Asia, el Financiamiento Compartido creció en 2014 en 320%; en América del Norte creció 145%. En América Latina el proceso también ha comenzado con muchísima fuerza; en la región esta industria creció 167% en 2014. Solamente en el mes de julio pasado se hicieron 3500 campañas que levantaron fondos por 2.95 millones de dólares; de esas, 1600 fueron hechas en Brasil, para cubrir más de 33% de todos los fondos levantados vía Financiamiento Compartido en la región. Además, Brasil cuenta con el mayor número de plataformas (21). Pero no sólo el “gigante auriverde” está en la pelea: El crowdfunding cuenta con empresas como Bandastic, Fondeadora, Inpact.me (Recompensa, México), Kueski o Lenddo (Préstamo, México); Vakita Capital (Equity, México); Cumplo (Deuda, Chile), La Chevre (Préstamo, Colombia); La Incubadora, Ideame o Súmame (recompensa, Colombia) y muchas otras más.

Gráfica Crowdfunding

Gráfica Crowdfunding

El Financiamiento Compartido cambiará la forma cómo se repartirá la riqueza en la sociedad del futuro, pues el acceso a oportunidades de inversión será abierto, horizontal y no reservado solamente al cenáculo de los enterados de la industria, tales como capitalistas de fondos de capital de riesgo, inversionistas ángeles y ejecutivos de la banca de inversión, siempre mejor informados que el público de las oportunidades que ofrece el mercado financiero. Ahora el pequeño inversionista podrá acceder a un pedazo del próximo Facebook, Twitter o Amazon en el momento de salida al mercado en lugar de contentarse con recibir una camiseta que más parece un premio de consolación, a la vista de los ingresos millonarios de esos startups. La innovación tecnológica ha hecho posible una revolución que tendrá un impacto no solo económico sino social y político.

Una versión extensa de este artículo se encuentra en estos enlaces:

Versión en inglés:

https://www.academia.edu/19947844/Crowdfunding_The_Financial_Revolt_of_the_masses

Versión en español:

https://www.academia.edu/19910444/Crowdfunding_La_Rebelion_de_las_Masas


Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el Blog Puntos sobre la i del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

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