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Si trabajar por cuenta propia es el futuro, ¿qué pasará con las pensiones?

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Uber, la compañía más grande del mundo de taxis, no tiene vehículos. Facebook, la empresa de comunicación más popular, no crea contenido. Alibaba, la firma comercial de más valor del mundo, no tiene inventario. Airbnb, el mayor proveedor de alojamiento, no tiene propiedades inmobiliarias. Algo interesante está pasando”. El economista Tom Goodwin analizaba así una de las tendencias emergentes que mayor impacto ha tenido recientemente en los mercados laborales: la economía compartida. Este nuevo modelo, que ha roto con las estructuras tradicionales del trabajo, plantea incógnitas aún por despejar. Una de ellas, de gran interés, tiene que ver con la protección de estos nuevos trabajadores: ¿habrá pensiones para ellos cuando lleguen a la vejez?

La economía compartida, un fenómeno posibilitado por los avances tecnológicos, difumina la relación entre la empresa y el empleado. Este último ha pasado a ser un autónomo que debe desenvolverse en un entorno tremendamente flexible, en el que las figuras del patrono y el asalariado ya no existen, y en el que la concepción tradicional de la formalidad queda desdibujada. Sin embargo, todavía hay resistencia a que éste sea el futuro. En lugares tan distantes como California, en Estados Unidos, o España, varias sentencias judiciales han determinado que los trabajadores de la economía compartida sí son empleados asalariados y que compañías como Uber sí son patronos.

Ese nuevo mundo de profesionales autónomos afectará directamente a los sistemas pensionales. Si desaparece la figura de ‘empresa-patrón’ que efectúa las contribuciones a la seguridad social, tomándolas del salario del empleado, ¿quién va a contribuir para la pensión de los trabajadores? Sabemos por experiencia que, para los trabajadores por cuenta propia de América Latina y el Caribe, realizar aportaciones es extremadamente difícil. En promedio, en la región sólo cotiza para su pensión el 16% de los autónomos (frente al 66% de asalariados). Incluso entre los trabajadores independientes que más ingresan (los que se encuentran en el decil más alto de ingresos), sólo el 40% contribuye a su pensión (los asalariados de mayores sueldos lo hacen en un 90%).

En este contexto, los trabajadores en la economía compartida tendrán que ser especialmente conscientes de la necesidad de ahorrar para garantizar su sustento en la vejez. Los sistemas de pensiones, tal como los conocemos en la actualidad, deberán cambiar profundamente para adaptarse a las nuevas tendencias demográficas. Como resalta el estudio Mejores pensiones, mejores trabajos delBanco Interamericano de Desarrollo, 80 millones de personas en América Latina y el Caribe no tendrán una pensión si no se reforman los actuales sistemas de protección, que deben adaptarse al envejecimiento progresivo de la población. Que el Estado deba garantizar la cobertura pensional de los ciudadanos es una realidad cuestionada. Y tampoco hay certeza de que se pueda mantener el actual modelo de financiamiento de los sistemas pensionales en un contexto de alto envejecimiento.

A esta tendencia de disipación del trabajo tradicional se unirá el hecho de que los trabajadores del futuro vivirán más años y, por tanto, tendrán una vida laboral más larga. Esta realidad, junto con la mayor flexibilidad que se demandará en el mercado laboral, se adapta bien a las características de la economía compartida. Sin embargo, que estos trabajadores tengan una pensión a su retiro dependerá, en buena medida, de ellos mismos, de su capacidad para administrar sus ingresos actuales. Esto requerirá un cambio de mentalidad: los trabajadores deberán preocuparse por ahorrar y planificar bien su futuro, algo que rara vez ocurre en la actualidad. En caso contrario, serán mucho más vulnerables a la pobreza en la vejez.


Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el Blog Factor Trabajo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

 

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