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Entre ninis y precarios: el empleo juvenil en la región

Foto: Adrian Fallace

Foto: Adrian Fallace

Mejorar las oportunidades de los jóvenes en el mercado laboral es una de las principales asignaturas pendientes de los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Reducir las tasas de desempleo juvenil no es sencillamente un desafío más: se trata de una de las mayores dificultades a las que se debe hacer frente, ya que los jóvenes latinoamericanos afrontan tasas de desempleo tres veces mayores que las de los adultos. Por otro lado, de los 106 millones de jóvenes que hay en la región, 22 millones ni estudian ni trabajan (el doble que la media de los países de la OCDE). Son los denominados ninis, un fenómeno de importancia creciente que incluye un subgrupo que es el que más preocupa: los nininis, como llamamos a los 16 millones de jóvenes de nuestra región que ni estudian, ni trabajan, ni buscan empleo.

La situación del empleo juvenil en nuestra región no es en absoluto la deseable. No sólo por los desempleados, los ninis y los ninini, sino también por la precariedad de los empleos que tienen los jóvenes que sí están empleados. Sabemos que la mayoría de ellos trabajan en el sector informal (6 de cada 10) y muchos con salarios inferiores al mínimo. ¿Por qué resulta tan difícil para los jóvenes encontrar buenas oportunidades laborales? A su lógica falta de experiencia en el mercado de trabajo se une la brecha de habilidades, esto es, la diferencia entre lo aprendido en la escuela y lo que demandan los empleadores. Sobre este complicado panorama conversamos recientemente en ‘CNN Dinero’, un espacio que te invito a ver en este video.

Con respecto a los ninis y nininis, ¿cómo incorporarlos al mercado de trabajo? ¿Cómo seducirlos para que inicien el círculo virtuoso del trabajo y dejen de estar estigmatizados? En los distintos programas de empleo para jóvenes que viene apoyando el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, hemos constatado –entre otras cosas– que reforzar sus habilidades blandas da resultados muy positivos. Hablamos de fortalecer aspectos tan importantes como la responsabilidad, la puntualidad, el trabajo en grupo, la planificación o la autoestima. Todo ello, unido al aumento de las habilidades técnicas a través de una experiencia práctica en una empresa, incrementa las posibilidades laborales de los jóvenes: hacer que se sientan parte de un equipo y conozcan las reglas de un ambiente laboral ‘de verdad’ es una formidable ayuda. Por otro lado, los programas de ‘mentoring’, en los que se acompaña a los jóvenes durante su entrenamiento, les permiten sentirse acompañados en el proceso y visualizar que pueden tener un futuro real y promisorio en el mundo laboral.

En cuanto a los jóvenes que están actualmente trabajando, ¿cómo facilitar la transición hacia mejores trabajos? No hay una solución rápida y fácil. Por un lado, los países deben seguir promoviendo y facilitando más y mejores empleos. Por otro, se necesita contar con una TransFormación del sistema de educación ycapacitación laboral que ayude a preparar a los jóvenes a entrar con buen pie al mundo laboral. Este nuevo sistema debe necesariamente conectar mejor el mundo de la escuela con el mundo del trabajo y centrarse en un modelo de aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. Como ya comenté en ‘Los trabajos del futuro‘ el mundo laboral es muy cambiante, y los jóvenes deben afrontarlo actualizando sus conocimientos minuto a minuto.


 

Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el Blog Factor Trabajo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

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