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Uruguay, el pequeño país que está liderando una gran revolución energética

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Los proyectos de infraestructura no convencional de energía renovable son sólo la punta del iceberg de la revolución de la matriz energética uruguaya. ¿Cómo están consiguiendo transformar su modelo energético?

Históricamente, muchos países que dependen de la generación hidroeléctrica necesitan acudir a otras fuentes en época de sequía. Ese fue el caso de Uruguay, o al menos lo fue hasta hace poco. Todo cambió cuando, en 2008, el país aprobó una nueva política energética que obtuvo el apoyo de los principales partidos políticos. Desde entonces, Uruguay ha avanzado enormemente hacia la meta de convertirse en un país en el que el 50% de la energía global primaria utilizada es renovable.

Con este objetivo en mente, se están implementando una serie de regulaciones para modificar la matriz eléctrica y promover el uso de energía eficiente en el país. Éstas incluyen la promoción de generadores no convencionales de energía renovable, electricidad a partir de biomasa, eficiencia energética y la inclusión de energía solar en los proyectos de construcción de edificios.

Uruguay cuenta en la actualidad con un 43% de la energía proveniente de fuentes hidroeléctricas, un 36% geotérmica, mientras que el 21% restante proviene de fuentes de energías renovables varias y se encuentra en rápida expansión. Con 340MW instalado, la capacidad eólica está creciendo a gran velocidad: si bien hace pocos años era de tan sólo 40MW, se espera que en solo dos años más alcance los 1000MW.

Esta tendencia responde al conocimiento y a los trabajos de infraestructura que el país está desarrollando en la actualidad con apoyo financiero del BID. También se están apoyando una serie de estudios, incluidos algunos relacionados con el potencial de las minicentrales hidroeléctricas, la eficiencia energética, la co-generación, así como también la modernización de la planta hidroeléctrica binacional Salto Grande.

Además de apoyar este enfoque integral en el apoyo de la revolución del sector energético del país, el BID también está financiando varios parques eólicos que suman una capacidad combinada de 200MW y considerando el apoyo financiero para proyectos fotovoltaicos y para una planta de regasificación.

Se espera que para 2017, dos tercios de la capacidad eléctrica instalada de Uruguay provenga de fuentes renovables y un tercio de fuentes renovables no convencionales. Esto no sólo beneficiará al usuario con precios más bajos, sino que también tendrá un impacto positivo sobre el medio ambiente.

Todos estos esfuerzos apuntan hacia la diversificación efectiva de la matriz eléctrica de Uruguay, una realidad que reducirá las emisiones de CO2 a la vez que se mitiga la vulnerabilidad del sector eléctrico del país a las condiciones hidrológicas y a los precios internacionales del crudo. Esto también se traducirá en mayor seguridad eléctrica para el país y en un superávit eléctrico que podría ser potencialmente vendido a países vecinos.

Uruguay tiene mucho que enseñar al resto de América Latina y del mundo en lo que a energía limpia se refiere.

Únete a la comunidad de cambio climático y sostenibilidad en Twitter: @BIDcambioclima

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