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Región en Blanco y Negro

¿Cuál es el potencial de la energía renovable en México y Centroamérica?

Los países de Centroamérica y México no son muy conocidos por su potencial en energía renovable. Sin embargo, muchos de ustedes se sorprenderían si les dijera que estos países poseen un potencial teórico renovable que,según un estudio reciente del BID, excede en más de 25 veces su producción actual de electricidad. Es más, estos países cuentan con una importante ventaja competitiva frente a otras regiones del mundo, puesto que poseen una interconexión eléctrica que permite que intercambien energía eléctrica entre sus redes.

A continuación analizo cuál es el potencial de cada uno de los países de esta región:

México, el sol azteca

Mexican-Hat

 

México es el país con mayor potencial en la región debido principalmente a su mayor tamaño. Este país tiene un gran potencial renovable, especialmente en energía solar, geotérmica y energía proveniente de la biomasa. Es más, en teoría la energía solar fotovoltaica solamente en este país podría producir más de 22 veces la producción de energía eléctrica actual utilizando tecnologías comerciales existentes.

Nicaragua, tierra de viento y volcanes

Nicaragua-Rio-San-Juan-by-Lihiba

Nicaragua es uno de los países que más recurso renovable posee después de México. Posee el mayor potencial eólico de Centroamérica y amplios recursos de energía geotérmica y solar. Nicaragua tiene la mitad del potencial eólico de México a pesar de ser mucho menor en tamaño, especialmente en el área de Rivas, situada al sur del país. Se calcula que Nicaragua podría producir alrededor de 11 veces su producción eléctrica anual actual por medio de la energía cinética del viento.

Costa Rica, los campeones de la energía hidroeléctrica

Costa-Rica-Mamifero

 

Costa Rica es famoso por tener una gran capacidad instalada de centrales hidroeléctricas. Sin embargo, sigue siendo el país con el mayor potencial hidroeléctrico de Centroamérica sin explotar, con un potencial anual superior a los 20 mil Gigavatios hora de energía eléctrica, lo que equivale al doble de la producción anual actual del país.

Guatemala, el titán de la biomasa

Guatemala-1024x246

 

Guatemala posee una biodiversidad y recursos naturales extraordinarios que se ven reflejados en la capacidad de generar energía por medio de la biomasa y otros tipos de energía renovable como la solar, hidroeléctrica ygeotérmica. Guatemala es el país con mayor capacidad renovable derivada de la biomasa en Centroamérica y se estima que podría producir algo más del 20% de la electricidad generada en el país por medio de este recurso.

Honduras, campeón de potencial geotérmico en Centroamérica

Honduras-Waterfall-1024x254

Este país podría producir alrededor de 42 mil Gigavatios hora de energía por medio del calor de su subsuelo, lo que equivale a 7 veces su producción actual de energía eléctrica. Juntando los recursos solares, hídricos, eólicos y de biomasa del país, este potencial alcanzaría alrededor de 60 veces la producción actual.

El Salvador y Panamá, lo tienen todo

Salvador-y-Panama

Con un área de aproximadamente 21.000 kilómetros cuadrados, El Salvador tiene amplios recursos naturales renovables más que suficientes para cubrir su demanda actual más de 13 veces. Panamá, no solo tiene el canal, sino que tiene una capacidad teórica de energía renovable de aproximadamente 30 veces la producción eléctrica anual actual.

En una región que aun depende en gran medida de los combustibles fósiles y la generación eléctrica convencional, nos queda ahora la tarea de convertir este potencial en realidad para mejorar el futuro de la región y de sus futuras generaciones.

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