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¿Cuál es la relación entre el precio de la zanahoria y el estacionamiento en el supermercado?

blog-bid“Nada es realmente gratis”. Eso es lo que mi profesor de Introducción a la Teoría de la Economía nos dijo en nuestra primera clase. ¿Te has preguntado quién paga por el estacionamiento “gratis” de los supermercados? Para averiguarlo necesitamos saber el precio del terreno usado para el estacionamiento y contar con otra información útil como el costo de oportunidad (el valor de la mejor opción de inversión no realizada) de construir un espacio adicional de estacionamiento, etc.Afortunadamente Donald Shoup, en su libro “El alto precio del estacionamiento gratis”, calculó que en promedio el costo de añadir un estacionamiento en 2002 en 15 estructuras analizadas en los Estados Unidos fue de US$31.500. Entonces, ¿estacionarse es o no es gratis? No. Mi profesor de economía tenía razón.

¿Quién paga por estos costos? Todos. ¿Y quién recibe los beneficios? Pocos.  Algunos supermercados (y muchos otros negocios) dan estacionamiento “gratis” para atraer clientela pero no todos los que van a comprar para llenar la despensa requieren de un estacionamiento. El costo de la construcción y del mantenimiento del estacionamiento está incluido en los productos que todos consumimos, tengamos un automóvil o no. A esto se le llama subsidio cruzado. Es decir, cuando compras zanahorias su precio ya incluye una fracción para cubrir el costo de construir y mantener ese estacionamiento, lo uses o no. Esta práctica adolece de una gran falta de equidad que padecen las personas que no tienen automóvil y que, en su mayoría en nuestra región, son personas de bajos recursos económicos. De esta manera, los online casino que menos recursos tienen están subsidiando el uso del automóvil de aquellos que lo usan y no pagan directamente los costos de su uso.

¿Cuál es el problema de fondo y cómo se puede resolver? El problema está en los requerimientos de estacionamiento que implementan las ciudades. El gráfico de abajo ilustra los requerimientos de estacionamiento en zonas comerciales, osea el espacio (metro cuadrado) de terreno comercial que se puede desarrollar por cada estacionamiento construido.

grafico

El estudio de estacionamientos del BID, basado en 12 ciudades de América Latina, muestra que ciudades como Buenos Aires, Bogotá y Medellín implementan políticas de uso de suelo que incentivan la construcción de menos cajones de estacionamiento por metro cuadrado de espacio comercial. Dichas políticas promueven la utilización de otros medios de transporte alternativos al automóvil. Otras ciudades analizadas en el estudio como Guadalajara, Ciudad de México y Belo Horizonte requieren la construcción de más espacios de estacionamiento por metro cuadrado en desarrollos comerciales.

La solución está en que cada ciudad revise sus requerimientos de estacionamiento e implemente políticas que promuevan el pago de los costos del uso del automóvil solo para aquellos que los usen y que no generen subsidios cruzados regresivos porque no es algo equitativo y están pagando más los que menos tienen. ¿Crees que es justo que cuando compras zanahorias pagues por beneficios que tú no recibes?

Esta columna se publicó originalmente en el Blog Moviliblog del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

250 Replies to “¿Cuál es la relación entre el precio de la zanahoria y el estacionamiento en el supermercado?

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