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Región en Blanco y Negro

Sí se puede: eliminando la pobreza en la vejez y apostando por el trabajo formal

Un mejor futuro para América Latina

Un mejor futuro para América Latina

El libro “Mejores pensiones, mejores trabajos” que presentamos ayer concluye que es posible avanzar hacia la cobertura universal en materia de pensiones en América Latina y el Caribe, y que bajo determinadas condiciones el sistema es financiable ahora y en el futuro. Ello implica no sólo establecer pensiones antipobreza sostenibles y eficientes para todos los ciudadanos, sino también hacer una apuesta decidida por la creación de más trabajo formal hoy y mañana. Esta actuación simultánea sobre cobertura previsional y sobre el mercado de trabajo constituye, en nuestra opinión, la única estrategia sostenible para proporcionar pensiones adecuadas en el largo plazo, y un componente esencial para la necesaria agenda en favor de la productividad en la región.

La informalidad no es una enfermedad incurable que irremediablemente padece América Latina y el Caribe. Es el resultado, en parte, de los diseños originales de los sistemas de previsión social, de los incentivos que el Estado proporciona en los mercados de trabajo, y de la valoración que trabajadores y empresas tienen acerca de los beneficios de la formalidad. Y todo ello se puede modificar.

Para hacerlo, hay que entender cuáles son las restricciones que impiden que se genere trabajo formal y poner en marcha las políticas necesarias destinadas a liberar esas restricciones. Sin pretender plantear una reforma única para todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe, sí consideramos posible contemplar una serie de principios de validez general, como los de integralidad, eficiencia, transparencia o innovación. En “Mejores pensiones, mejores trabajos” también se sugieren mecanismos de estímulo al empleo formal, contemplando, entre otras opciones, subsidios a los aportes obligatorios para trabajadores asalariados y no asalariados, favoreciéndose la incorporación de los trabajadores de ingresos bajos y de las emergentes clases medias, así como facilitar innovar para incorporar gradualmente a todos los trabajadores, incluidos los independientes, a la seguridad social.

Una reforma integral como ésta podría financiarse dedicando apenas un punto del PIB adicional a lo que los gobiernos ya están destinando actualmente en pensiones no contributivas. Un coste que se puede considerar más que razonable, no sólo por el coste de no hacer nada, sino por los resultados de erradicación de la pobreza en la vejez y el aumento de la formalidad y el crecimiento potencial. Sí se puede.

Esta columna fue publicada originalmente en el blog Factor Trabajo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). @factortrabajo

183 Replies to “Sí se puede: eliminando la pobreza en la vejez y apostando por el trabajo formal

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