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Región en Blanco y Negro

Políticas saludables

¿Qué rol tiene el desarrollo infantil en las políticas de tu país? Hay mucho conocimiento, evidencias, lecciones aprendidas y sistematizadas sobre desarrollo infantil, sin embargo, aún los niveles de inversión en la infancia en América Latina y el Caribe no son los requeridos.

Helia Molina Milman

Políticas-saludables

¿Qué rol tiene el desarrollo infantil en las políticas de tu país?

En junio se desarrolló en Helsinki, Finlandia, la Octava Conferencia Global de Promoción de la Salud de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La primera conferencia de este estilo fue en 1986 en Ottawa, Canadá y marcó un antes y un después en la salud pública a nivel mundial. La Carta de Ottawa representa un nuevo paradigma en la promoción de la salud porque establece estrategias fundamentales como el desarrollo de políticas públicas saludables, la promoción de la participación social y comunitaria, el trabajo intersectorial y la mejora de las competencias personales para tomar las mejores decisiones en salud.

Entre la primera y la octava conferencia se ha desarrollado un sólido cuerpo de conocimientos en torno a los determinantes sociales de la salud. La última conferencia hizo énfasis en un lema que ha tomado cada vez mas fuerza: salud en todas las políticas. En la medida que hay un mayor conocimiento de los determinantes sociales de la salud y de la visión de la salud como un constructo social, nos vemos obligados a abordarla con un enfoque multidisciplinario e intersectorial. El libro “Health in All Policies” lo describe bien, en particular, el capítulo 6 está dedicado a la infancia y allí aborda el desarrollo infantil temprano desde la perspectiva de la equidad y del logro de resultados.

El capítulo fue escrito por dos autores latinoamericanos y dos canadienses. Uno de ellos es Clyde Hertzman, director de HELP e investigador de la Universidad de British Columbia, quien ha sido un gran líder en DIT a nivel global y ha aportado muchísimas evidencias de efectividad de intervenciones y de mediciones innovadoras de DIT en correlato con el contexto. El autor mencionado falleció a comienzos de 2013 y no alcanzó a ver el libro terminado, por esta razón, aprovecho esta oportunidad para reconocerle como profesional y como ser humano, y así rendir tributo a su tremendo aporte a la infancia en Canadá y en muchas otras partes del mundo, principalmente en países en desarrollo.

En el libro, el DIT se aborda desde varios ángulos. Por un lado, se describen experiencias exitosas y por otro, se discuten políticas integrales así como en modelos de trabajo en torno a los derechos de la infancia. El DIT en todas las políticas tiene sentido, porque el desarrollo de un niño es multidimensional, no sólo por la complejidad del proceso cerebral sino por la influencia sustantiva que tiene el contexto en la adquisición de competencias en lo biológico, psicológico y social. Los períodos críticos representan una ventana de oportunidad muy corta. Los logros en más de un ámbito alcanzan su pico de desarrollo antes de que el niño cumpla los primeros mil días de vida (desde el embarazo). Esto da un sentido de urgencia a las políticas públicas de DIT.

Por justicia, se debe destacar que en los últimos años muchos países de la región han puesto a la infancia y al DIT como una de sus prioridades. Por esa misma razón, el desafío consiste en diseñar e implementar políticas integrales, que consideren aspectos como la pertinencia cultural, el enfoque de derechos y el trabajo intersectorial. Esto cobra todavía mayor importancia si reconocemos que la cultura institucional de los países de la región es muy sectorial y que existe escasa complementariedad y casi nula sinergia entre las distintas intervenciones.

Helia Molina Milman, MDMPH, es profesora de Salud Pública en la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Fue Secretaria Ejecutiva Nacional del programa “Chile Crece Contigo” entre 2008 y 2010.

Esta columna fue publicada originalmente en el blog Primeros Pasos del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). #BIDDesarrolloInfantil

 

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