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¿La ciudad como área de cultivo?

Por: Horacio Terraza -La semana pasada pasé a visitar la huerta de la escuela de mis hijas en la cual tanto ellas como mi esposa trabajan asiduamente. La escuela es parte fundamental de una centralidad urbana construida en torno a una parada de metro (tren subterráneo), a escasos 100 mts. Mis vecinos mantienen una huerta comunitaria en la plaza del barrio. Mi otro vecino, Luis, planta tomates, zucchinis, lechugas en el fondo de casa. Más que 38% de las casas estadounidenses – lo que representa 41 millones de personas – cultivaron un jardín en el 2010. Todos estos casos me han llevado últimamente a prestar atención a un nuevo y creciente paisaje de la ciudad: las huertas urbanas.

Pero quizás lo más interesante no sea analizar esto sólo como fenómeno urbano, sino ver que nos está sucediendo a los habitantes de las ciudades que tenemos esta necesidad de reconectarnos con la tierra y la producción de alimentos transformando como consecuencia el paisaje urbano.

Son varias las reflexiones que esto me genera, la primera es la mirada romántica y un tanto bucólica de lo rural ganando espacio perdido a la ciudad, una suerte de “revancha del campo”. Esto parecería entrar en franca contradicción con mi vocación urbana, mi defensa de la densificación y el uso eficiente de la infraestructura urbana. Quizás lo esté, pero no hay duda que desde el punto de vista ambiental y en la búsqueda de un modelo de ciudad resiliente, la utilización productiva de estos diminutos espacios verdes parece por lo menos eficiente. Si de eficiencia hablamos, un ejemplo claro de eficiencia como consecuencia de la metamorfosis urbana, son aquellas ciudades americanas con población decreciente (casi 3 docenas de ciudades con poblaciones de arriba de 100.00 en 1950 han perdido más que 20% de sus residentes, (US Census 2010) dejando por ejemplo en el caso de Detroit más que 100 km cuadrados de terreno abandonado, en las que los lotes vacantes son utilizados también con fines productivos.

image002 De donde surge todo esto?

El fenómeno no es nuevo.

Los primeros esfuerzos por cultivar productos agrícolas en las ciudades en USA comenzaron en la década de los 1940s, donde  cerca de 20 millones de personas plantaban “jardines de victoria”, con el propósito de reducir la escasez que producía  la Segunda Guerra Mundial en el sistema de producción de alimentos en los Estados Unidos.

Quizás sin los apremios de una guerra cercana, e inclusive un poco antes, también recuerdo a mis bisabuelos y abuelos inmigrantes que plantaban por motivos económicos y culturales frutas y verduras en el fondo de sus casas en Argentina, un modelo productivo usual  desde principios hasta mediados del siglo XX.  Sin embargo, como vimos arriba,  este resurgir en el  interés por mantener huertas individuales en la actualidad posee  motivaciones singularmente diferentes muy relacionadas con la sociedad del siglo XXI.

Cuáles son?

1) El auto-consumo trae consigo ahorro económico

No hay duda que aunque en menor medida esta sigue siendo una motivación, particularmente en los casos de ciudades con altos niveles de pobreza y decrecimiento poblacional como las mencionadas antes (y a las cuales vamos a destinar un post especifico en las próximas semanas) y a aquellas familias quienes viven en un “food desert” donde hay acceso limitado a los alimentos saludables (11,5 millones de personas en USA viven en áreas de bajos recursos y más que 1 milla de un supermercado donde pueden acceder frutas y verduras).  Una familia puede satisfacer un 30-40% de sus necesidades alimenticias por medio de la cultivación de sus propias frutas y verduras en este tipo de huertas produciendo entre US $500-2.000 de productos agricultores al año. Y la agricultura urbana es una inversión de alto rendimiento; por cada US$1 que se invierte en un jardín se recibe aproximadamente $6 en verduras.

2) La preocupación ambiental

image018

Fuente: Brighter Planet 2010

Quizás la más apremiante. Hay una creciente preocupación y toma de conciencia para reducir el impacto del cambio climático a través de la adopción de un consumo más sostenible. Se han estimado  que la agricultura industrial contribuye en un 15-25% al cambio climático considerando la producción y transporte de la comida, o el transporte de alimentos como el  21% de las emisiones totales según otros autores. Cuantos kilómetros viajan nuestros alimentos para llegar a la mesa y cuántas emisiones son producidas como consecuencia? Por ejemplo, en USA dicha distancia gira alrededor de 1500 millas (2400 km) El movimiento “eat local” está trabajando sobre esta idea e influenciando hábitos de consumo de manera singular. Aunque esta tendencia dentro de EEUU es mínima en comparación con métodos de compra más tradicionales, está aumentando exponencialmente cada año: entre 2002 y 2007 ventas directas al consumidor de productos agrícolas aumentaron en 49% (US$399 millones).

Se suma a esto también los beneficios de crear ciudades con más espacios verdes e infraestructura verde, por ejemplo con parques o lotes/huerto que permitan reducir la escorrentía del agua de lluvia perjudicial y que puedan proveer eco-hábitats locales.

image019

Flickr: PermaCultured

3. Una alimentación más saludable
La población está poniendo más atención a lo que come y de donde provienen los alimentos. Los hábitos alimenticios han cambiado singularmente en las últimas décadas. Michael Pollan y su serie de libros, entre ellos “The Omnivore’s Dilemma” ha instalado el tema desde la divulgación de manera que no lo había hecho al ciencia antes: la producción en masa de comida está poniendo en riesgo no solo nuestra salud sino también al medioambiente en general.  El aumento de la venta de alimentos orgánicos en los supermercados y particularmente en los “farmer’s markets” – los cuales aumentaron en un 92% entre 1998 y 2009 en los EEUU –  y los programas de agricultura sostenida por la comunidad (CSAs por sus siglas en ingles), de las ciudades americanas es un ejemplo de la creciente toma de conciencia.  Cultivar frutas y verduras en jardines, balcones o  techos privados nos permite saber de dónde viene la comida y nos asegura la calidad del mismo.

image020

Flickr: boboroshi

En esta misma línea, veo también en muchos padres la decisión de que sus hijos “urbanos” entiendan de donde provienen las frutas y verduras, que estas no crecen en supermercados, y que se conecten con la alimentación también desde otro lugar.

4. La revitalización de la comunidad

Como comentábamos antes, en las ciudades con poblaciones decrecientes y especialmente en aquellos barrios con serios problemas de pobreza y delincuencia, los lotes abandonados se transforman no solo en espacios de producción hortícola sino, y más importante, de nucleamiento comunitario,  fortaleciendo vínculos sociales perdidos y estableciendo objetivos claros entre los miembros de la comunidad.  Es reconocido que los jardines comunitarios agregan valor al barrio y éste aumenta con el tiempo, además, este valor agregado es aún mayor en barrios con bajos recursos. Un estudio en la ciudad de Nueva York muestra que dentro de los 5 años después de que se instala un jardín comunitario los valores de propiedad suban un 9,4%.

image009

Flickr: jessicareeder

Liz Christy Community Garden en Nueva York – el primer jardín comunitario en Nueva York, que se abrió por Liz Christy, fundadora de los Green Guerillas, un grupo que promueve la acción comunitaria para revitalizar y estabilizar zonas de la ciudad.

image010

Flickr: Dave Schumaker

Tenderloin National Forest en San Francisco  – se surgió este jardín comunitario en un barrio conocido por sus altos niveles de pobreza, indigencia y drogas, cuando los propietarios del edificio decidieron transformar un callejón en un espacio seguro donde la comunidad pudiera unirse y relajar.

image011

Flickr: Ogilvy PR

Common Good City Farm en Washington DC – Este jardín comunitario está en un lote abandonado que antes fue una cancha de béisbol para un colegio que se cerró.  El jardín opera un programa de “aprender para comer” donde familias de bajos recursos pueden recibir productos agrícolas a cambio de aprender a trabajar en el jardín.

Quizás sea la combinación de todos estos factores, pero sigo pensando que hay una quinta razón más relacionada con una necesidad interna de relacionarse con la naturaleza desde la ciudad, y quizás esta es una fuerte expresión del crecimiento del eco-urbanismo, una manera más balanceada de relacionarnos con la naturaleza desde lo urbano.

Vemos el mismo fenómeno en Latinoamérica? Se están llevando a cabo este tipo de proyectos  en sus ciudades? Nos interesaría conocerlos.

Esta columna fue publicada originalmente en el blog de la Iniciativa Ciudades Emergentes y Sostenbiles del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). #ciudadesemergentes

 

 

 

 

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