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PMI Capítulo El Salvador
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Implementación de Proyectos Lean

Hace una semana, preparé una breve charla para la reunión del Capítulo PMI El Salvador, y me llamó la atención el interés que despierta el pensamiento Lean, que de hecho muy poco se enseña en los colegios y universidades. La filosofía Lean, que tuvo sus orígenes en Japón tras la finalización de la segunda guerra mundial, sorprendió al mundo industrial por la alta calidad y bajos costos demostrados en la fabricación de vehículos producidos, especialmente en la fábrica Toyota. Luego, en los 90´s, la filosofía fue estudiada por académicos del MIT, produciendo toda una teoría de Gestión Lean, la cual fue conocida en inglés como Lean Thinking (Womack, Jones).

La Gestión Lean se enfoca principalmente en la eliminación del desperdicio en toda actividad productiva. Lo que no produce un valor al cliente, es imperativo eliminarlo, a menos que sea un requisito ineludible, para dar cumplimiento a una ley o regulación.

La filosofía Lean tiene hoy en día, gran aplicabilidad en la mayoría de las industrias, y es muy común observar como grandes corporaciones han implementado este tipo de gestión en el marco operativo de sus negocios.  Gigantes de la aviación, como Boeing, Airbus y otros, fabrican sus aeronaves bajo conceptos de gestión Lean, y han podido reducir los tiempos de entrega de sus aeronaves hasta en un 20%.

A los profesionales de Proyectos, se les presenta una gran oportunidad de lograr enormes eficiencias en la planificación y ejecución de sus proyectos. Simplemente, hay que revisar los elementos claves del proyecto bajo la lupa de la Gestión Lean. Asumiendo que los profesionales de proyectos, están siguiendo una metodología como la del Project Management Institute, plasmada en el PMBOK y sus estándares, podemos decir que las grandes áreas donde pueden comenzar su gestión Lean serán entre otras:

  • Enunciado del Alcance: aquí se plasma lo que incluye y lo que no se incluye dentro de un proyecto. En este enunciado se encuentran los requerimientos del cliente, los cuales no deben de ser perdidos de vista. Hay que revisar que el alcance cumpla con los requisitos solicitados, y no agregar más que lo que el cliente solicita. Todo atributo que no esté en línea con los requerimientos, hay que eliminarlo.
  • La WBS: tiene como entrada el enunciado del Alcance mencionado antes, y detalla de forma estructurada los paquetes de trabajo y sus entregables. Si el enunciado del Alcance contiene una definición no exacta de los requerimientos del cliente, tampoco lo tendrán las tareas y sus entregables. Es imperativo, revisar si los entregables contribuyen a generar el valor solicitado definido en el enunciado del Alcance del proyecto. Será necesario revisar si los entregables agregan valor, sino, revise con su cliente, hasta lograr un mutuo acuerdo. Cualquier tarea que no agregue valor, no la pagara el cliente, y los costos del proyecto se verán afectados.
  • La Programación de tareas: Aquí se dan las grandes oportunidades de ahorro para quitar todo que implique esperas, colas, movimientos, re-trabajos, trabas burocráticas y excesos de tramitología. Pregúntese si estamos trabajando con grupos empoderados capaces de tomar sus propias decisiones y solventar eficientemente los problemas, o tenemos grupos con parálisis colectiva, en espera siempre de las “ordenes de arriba”. Las empresas típicas, realizan solamente un 10 a un 15% de actividades que producen un valor al cliente. Si bien, no es posible eliminar al a 100% las que no agregan valor, reduzca esta porción considerablemente. Importante que busque siempre parte de las soluciones entre los miembros del equipo.

Con seguridad, que a la luz de Lean, podemos ir encontrando más formas de ir eliminando el desperdicio, antes y durante la ejecución de los proyectos. Importante realizar el registro de lecciones aprendidas, para ir plasmando las oportunidades encontradas, para que sirva de base para proyectos futuros.

Más allá de estas oportunidades, revisemos si durante la ejecución de los proyectos estamos usando las mejores prácticas de la industria. Es un deber tener una declaración de la Política de Calidad de la organización, y bien definidos los estándares por los cuales todos enmarcaran sus actividades, decisiones y planes. Revise si sus equipos están preparados para detectar errores mediante cualquiera que sea su metodología, y si son capaces de solucionar estos desde la raíz. Prevenir los defectos es mucho más barato que corregirlos, además, el cliente no perdona.

Si usted desea comenzar hoy su viaje hacia Lean, comience por usted mismo, por su Gemba personal: su escritorio, su computadora, su agenda, su guardarropa, su habitación, etc. Luego siga en busca de la excelencia personal, removiendo de su alimentación todo aquello que no lo  nutre adecuadamente y de hábitos personales pocos sanos. Amplié luego a su entorno familiar, enseñe a sus hijos el gusto por lo limpio y el orden; luego proceda con su oficina y por supuesto en su empresa. Le deseo lo mejor en este camino, largo pero reconfortante cuando vea los resultados.

Sergio Carrillo, PMP. Septiembre 12, 2016

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