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NAICM: vanguardia BIM en América Latina

 Juan Antonio Cuartero, director general de Negocio de Structuralia

La principal infraestructura aeroportuaria de México lleva 20 años operando al límite de su capacidad, con lo que el Nuevo Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México (NAICM) supone una necesaria solución a una problemática aérea que imposibilita el correcto desarrollo económico nacional.

Prueba de tal saturación es su cuota del mercado nacional: durante 2015 representó el 34% de los vuelos de pasajeros producidos en el país (114 millones en total) y el 53% del transporte de mercancías (770.000 toneladas en total).

Su ubicación, en la ciudad de Texcoco, situado a tan solo 5 minutos del actual aeropuerto, es idónea para albergar 6 pistas de aterrizaje, dotadas con las características propias de los grandes hubs internacionales. Esto le permitirá realizar 855.000 operaciones y movilizar a 68 millones de pasajeros por año, tan sólo durante la primera de sus fases de explotación.

El Gobierno Federal ha propuesto como objetivo, para este macroproyecto, ser una referencia en diseño, construcción y operación sostenible, situándose a la vanguardia mundial. Para ello, contará con los más altos estándares internacionales, utilizará energías renovables, fomentará un uso eficiente del agua, y tendrá sistemas de ventilación eficaces que optimicen el uso energético.

Las inversiones en infraestructura resultan ser un motor muy importante para el crecimiento de la productividad de un país, ya que tienen un efecto multiplicador del 25% adicional en el PIB. Así, el NAICM supondrá la creación de un nuevo polo de desarrollo que transformará la Zona Oriente del Valle de México.

Representa, además, uno de los tres mayores proyectos aeroportuarios del mundo llevados a cabo en la actualidad, con capacidad para transportar hasta 120 millones de pasajeros en su fase de máximo desarrollo, cifra tan solo superada por el Nuevo Aeropuerto de Estambul (150 millones de pasajeros) y por el Aeropuerto de Londres – Britania (172 millones de pasajeros).

En cuanto a su financiación, esta se realizará mediante una colaboración público privada, mediante la cual un 60% de la inversión estará contemplada en el Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federación, siendo el 40% restante del presupuesto asumido por entidades privadas.

Así, los más de 100.000 millones de pesos que la nación invertirá en esta infraestructura estarán destinados, principalmente, a obras de desarrollo social; mientras que los cerca de 70.000 millones de pesos aportados por el sector privado se designarán a la construcción de la misma, que serán amortizados a largo plazo a través de una concesión para cobrar la TUA (Tarifa de uso aeroportuario).

Cabe destacar que esta megaconstrucción generará un impacto económico de 17,500 billones de pesos hasta el año 2070 y más de 450,000 empleos adicionales a los que produciría la actual infraestructura aeroportuaria.

Tal es la magnitud de este proyecto, que la gestión de la información no hubiese sido posible sin la aplicación de la metodología BIM, dado el tamaño y la complejidad de la misma.

Igualmente, el uso de BIM (Building Information Modeling) está siendo fundamental como mecanismo de coordinación entre las diferentes disciplinas actuantes, así como herramienta de documentación, dado que la mayoría de la producción de planos se realiza desde esta software, que permite un visionado tridimensional y en directo del avance de las obras.

En términos del Instituto Americano de Arquitectura (AIA o American Institute of Architects), el Proyecto Básico alcanzó el nivel de detalle LOD 200, que establece que los modelos aportan una visión general con información de magnitudes aproximadas, en tamaño, forma, localización y orientación; mientras que para el Proyecto de Ejecución se llegó al nivel LOD 300, en el que los modelos representados aportan una información y geometría precisa, pendiente de algún detalle constructivo.

Imagínense lo laborioso que sería la gestión de un proyecto de una magnitud como este, sin la ayuda de las herramientas específicas de la metodología BIM, no solo en la fase de proyecto y construcción, sino en la posterior etapa de mantenimiento.

Las nuevas tecnologías están marcando, desde ya, la ruta a seguir hacia la construcción del futuro y sin duda, debemos estar preparados y altamente cualificados para aprovechar las próximas coyunturas laborales que se crucen en nuestro camino.

Aeropuerto

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