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¿Qué requisitos debe cumplir una ciudad para ser considerada Smart City?

Juan Antonio Cuartero – Director general de negocios de Structuralia (www.structuralia.com)

El concepto de Smart City es muy amplio, dado que abarca muchos aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo urbano sostenible. Por esta razón, delimitar qué es y qué no es una “ciudad inteligente” dependerá de quién lo evalúe. Lo que forzosamente sí deberá incluir cualquier definición es la sostenibilidad llevada a su máxima expresión.

Según los estudios más recientes, se prevé que en el año 2050 un 85% de la población mundial resida en ciudades. Las urbes consumen ya más del 75% de la producción de energía mundial y generan el 80% de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

Así es como surge esta filosofía, que pretende transformar los núcleos urbanos y solventar dichas preocupaciones sociales y ambientales. Pero, ¿qué requisitos debe cumplir una ciudad para ser considerada Smart City?

Al igual que ocurre con su definición, no existen unos requisitos específicos que concedan el “título” de Ciudad Inteligente a un territorio determinado. Sin embargo, carece de sentido referirse a ello sin haber implementado alguna de las siguientes características que todo núcleo urbano sostenible debe cumplir:

  • Integración tecnológica de sus infraestructuras, suministro energético y servicios de transporte.
  • Gestión eficiente de la economía y de los recursos materiales.
  • Planificación urbana
  • Accesibilidad universal y movilidad urbana sostenible.
  • Uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC).
  • Innovación tecnológica y arquitectónica que aumenten la calidad de vida.
  • Compromiso y respeto con el Medio Ambiente.
  • Colaboración activa entre la Administración Pública y los ciudadanos (cohesión social).
  • Apertura y transparencia de los datos.

 

El transcurso del tiempo ha conseguido que el concepto inicial se ramifique en varios subsistemas especializados que, en armonía, definen a la perfección la corriente ideológica planteada para las ciudades del futuro.

Así, aparecen las Smart Grids, redes de distribución eléctrica eficientes; las Smart Metering, mediciones de gasto energético individualizado; los Smart Buildings, arquitectura optimizada y autosuficiente; los Smart Sensors, sensores que mantendrán toda la ciudad conectada; la eMobility, basada en la circulación de vehículos eléctricos, entre otros.

ALGUNOS EJEMPLOS.

Buena muestra de todo lo anterior son las ciudades de Nueva York, Londres y París, que encabezan el ránking de las ciudades que más se han desarrollado en este ámbito, según el último análisis del IESE Business School.

Por otra parte, también surgen nuevas ciudades que ya nacen con el ADN de una Smart City. Es el caso concreto de Másdar (Dubai) que acogerá una ecociudad para 50.000 habitantes en la que no se pueden usar coches. Diseñada por Norman Foster and Partners, cuenta con una superficie de más de 6.000.000 m². Comenzó a construirse en el año 2008 con un característico muro perimetral vegetal, cuyo fin es el de proteger a la ciudad de la corrosión provocada por los fuertes vientos del desierto. Este megaproyecto será 100% sostenible persiguiendo una vida sin emisiones de carbono ni de residuos.

Otra de las ciudades puramente inteligente es Dongtan,  situada al este de la isla de Chongming, en las proximidades de Shanghái (China). Diseñada por el arquitecto chileno Alejandro Gutiérrez, comenzó a construirse en 2007 y cuenta con una superficie de 8.500 hectáreas. En esta ecociudad tan sólo se usarán energías renovables (biomasa, eólica y solar); los automóviles privados y el transporte público funcionarán con hidrógeno; se reciclará hasta el 80% de la basura generada y el agua potable tendrá un doble uso: para consumo humano y para descargas sanitarias y riegos. Su proyección presagia que para el año 2040 se alcanzará un tamaño igual a la mitad de Manhattan.

OPORTUNIDADES EN AMÉRICA LATINA.

Santiago de Chile y Buenos Aires, en los puestos 80 y 85 respectivamente, son las dos ciudades latinoamericanas que aparecen en el, anteriormente mencionado, ránking de las ciudades más inteligentes del Mundo.

De la primera, llama la atención su incesante lucha contra la contaminación del aire y su apuesta por el carsharing. De la capital argentina, su incorporación tecnológica y su infraestructura ciclista.

El mismo informe destaca el gran potencial de desarrollo que presentan Quito, Monterrey, Lima y Santo Domingo, ciudades que experimentarán un importante crecimiento dentro de este sector.

Sólo en Latinoamérica, la transformación digital y energética de las urbes crecerá un 19,4% anual, hasta alcanzar una facturación de más de 75.000 millones de dólares en el año 2020, según la consultora Markets & Markets.

Estos países tienen previsto invertir en la mejora de sus subsistemas actuales,  con proyectos centrados en la mejora de las infraestructuras, del transporte, de la gestión integral de sus edificios y de todo aquello vinculado con el control eficiente y sostenible de los recursos energéticos.

Precisamente este último sector, el relacionado con las energías renovables, es el que más actividad está registrando en los últimos tiempos. Así, por ejemplo, Chile invertirá 100 millones de dólares para apoyar su programa; Argentina ha recibido una inyección de 480 millones de dólares del Banco Mundial para el desarrollo de sus proyectos; o la destacable inversión de más de 530 millones de dólares en infraestructura energética que el Grupo de Energía de Bogotá va a invertir este año.

Es evidente que esta financiación augura la generación de cientos de miles de empleos en todo el mundo, que estarán destinados a aquellos ingenieros competentes del sector. Para ello, estos profesionales deben estar formados en materias relacionadas con la generación eléctrica, el mantenimiento de las centrales generadoras de energía o el ahorro energético en edificaciones sostenibles. Pero no sólo existirán oportunidades en materia energética, sino que el abanico de las Smart Cities se extiende hacia el área del facility y project management, la construcción modular de edificios,  el dominio de la metodología BIM y la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en todas las fases del desarrollo de estas infraestructuras.

Las ciudades del futuro están más próximas de lo que creemos y es fundamental que profesionales y empresas estén preparados para aprovechar al máximo las nuevas oportunidades de negocio.

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