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La Justicia social en Centroamérica

La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas instituyó, en 2007, el día de la Justicia Social, a celebrarse cada 20 de febrero. Este día es útil para valorar los esfuerzos que han hecho las sociedades en la lucha contra la pobreza y el desempleo, la discriminación y la desigualdad social. Pero también debe ser aprovechado para reconocer que todas las personas ―ciudadanos, trabajadores, empresarios y gobernantes― tienen el compromiso de ayudar en la construcción de un modelo económico y político, basado en principios de justicia, igualdad y sostenibilidad ambiental.

Ese modelo de sociedad requiere asentarse en tres pilares. Primero, un crecimiento económico que fomente la transformación tecnológica, la inversión privada y el pleno empleo, con salarios que garanticen el bienestar de todos los hogares y una mejor distribución de la riqueza, al tiempo en que se realizan inversiones para mejorar la infraestructura económica y social. Otro elemento toral de esta columna lo constituye el cuidado del ambiente natural y el derecho de las comunidades a decidir qué hacer con sus recursos naturales.

El segundo pilar está relacionado con la construcción y el fomento de la igualdad, lo que se puede lograr, en buena medida, protegiendo, garantizando y promoviendo los derechos individuales y colectivos. En la práctica, esto significa la provisión universal de bienes y servicios públicos con calidad y pertinencia, tales como la salud, el agua y el saneamiento ambiental, la educación, la seguridad social, la vivienda y la justicia; pero también requiere la puesta en marcha de políticas económicas y sociales que garanticen el empleo, la igualdad de género, étnica y de territorio, la participación política, la libertad de pensamiento, de expresión y de culto.

Finalmente, el tercer pilar está relacionado con el mantenimiento de una administración pública efectiva. Esto significa, instituciones públicas laicas, modernas y democráticas ―organismos Legislativo, Ejecutivo y Judicial, entidades autónomas y descentralizadas― que cumplan su misión en función del bienestar social y de su mandato constitucional. Esto conlleva políticas públicas cercanas a los ciudadanos desde su diseño, implementación, ejecución, evaluación y rendición de cuentas. Para garantizar este pilar es indispensable contar con un servicio civil profesionalizado e independiente de los cambios de gobierno. Asimismo, se requiere de partidos políticos que representen la voz de los ciudadanos, sin opacidad en su gestión, financiera e ideológica, que cuenten y formen personas probas y aptas para gobernar, y que convenzan a los electores con planes de gobierno elaborados por sus cuadros técnicos y sustentados en metas, resultados medibles y un plan fiscal que los concrete.

Otro elemento importante en esta tercera columna, lo constituyen las instituciones de justicia ―Tribunales, Ministerio Público, Corte de Constitucionalidad, entre otros―, de regulación económica ―banca central, instituciones supervisoras de mercados, precios y estándares de calidad, por ejemplo―, la controlaría y la administración de las finanzas públicas. Si estos organismos del Estado fallan o están capturados por intereses particulares, se debilita la gobernabilidad democrática y se pierden los equilibrios políticos que consiguen colocar como fin la justicia social.

Los Estados en Centroamérica, deben continuar realizando esfuerzos por encaminar su quehacer en función de la justicia social, principalmente en Guatemala, El Salvador y Honduras, países en donde se concentra el 85% de los pobres extremos de Centroamérica.  De acuerdo con las últimas mediciones, en el istmo la proporción de hogares excluidos ―unidades familiares con empleos precarios o desempleados que subsisten con ayudas del Estado u otras fuentes― es de 39%, lo que equivale a 4.2 millones de hogares, es decir, cerca de 18 millones de personas.

Hoy es un buen día para recordar que cada miembro de la sociedad centroamericana, desde su ámbito de acción, debe aportar a construcción de la justicia social, pues esta es un factor determinante tanto para la identidad nacional como para la construcción y el mantenimiento de la paz y la democracia, al convertirse en certidumbres: trabajo y comida en la mesa, hijos educados y sanos, un techo donde descansar; jóvenes con un rol protagónico en la sociedad, ancianos protegidos con salud y pensión, oportunidades lícitas de negocio y promoción de la diversidad, entre otras.

La política fiscal, como rostro concreto de un Estado, debe reformarse para sintonizarse en la búsqueda de la justicia social. Por lo tanto, los ingresos públicos deben ser captados con equidad, vertical (a igual ingreso, igual impuesto) y horizontal (a más ingresos, más impuesto); de manera eficiente, cerrando los espacios tanto a privilegios fiscales injustificados como a la evasión y la defraudación de los impuestos. La deuda pública debe ser utilizada estratégicamente, con el fin de apuntalar proyectos, económicos y sociales, de beneficio intergeneracional. En el caso del gasto público, este debe ejecutarse en función del cumplimiento de derechos y de metas de desarrollo, buscando la universalización de los servicios que presta el Estado, pero priorizando a la población con mayor vulnerabilidad, y reconociendo el importante valor que las inversiones públicas tienen para fomentar la inversión privada. La transparencia, la probidad y reglas claras sobre el quehacer de los empleados públicos y funcionarios, deben lograr que los recursos públicos sean utilizados para el bien común y no para satisfacer ambiciones personales o gremiales. Por su parte, la rendición de cuentas debe ser un instrumento que fomente el diálogo de los gobernantes con la ciudadanía y logre la legitimidad de las acciones públicas.

 

Rompetexto: Estamos urgidos de construir un modelo económico y político basado en la justicia social

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