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El desarrollo rural centroamericano: vital para luchar contra el hambre y la pobreza

El 16 de octubre se celebra el Día Mundial de la Alimentación, espacio proclamado por las Naciones Unidas en 1979 y cuyo fin es concientizar a la sociedad contemporánea sobre el problema alimentario, así como fortalecer la lucha contra el hambre, la desnutrición y la pobreza.

Las más recientes estimaciones de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO, por sus siglas en inglés), señalan que en el mundo hay 815 millones de personas padecen hambre. En el caso de América Latina y el Caribe, la FAO advierte que la región, tras algunos años de progreso, ha dejado de avanzar hacia la erradicación del hambre y la malnutrición. De hecho, entre 2015 y 2016, el número de personas que no con contaban con la cantidad suficiente de alimentos diarios aumentó en 2.4 millones, llegando a sumar 42.5 millones de latinoamericanos. Si esta tendencia no se modifica, la región no cumplirá la meta de erradicar el hambre, establecida en los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible 2 y 3.

En Centroamérica, cerca de 6.2 millones de personas ―90% de ellas viviendo en los países del CA4: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua― padecen hambre cotidianamente como resultado de dos fenómenos. Primero, un modelo económico neoliberal, poco dinámico en la creación de empleos y en la transformación productiva, que aumenta la desigualdad y que, en algunos países, también refuerza la discriminación. Segundo, por un muy débil sistema de protección social que es incapaz de potenciar, por medio de políticas públicas, garantías mínimas de bienestar.

El hambre y la pobreza económica están minando las posibilidades democráticas del Istmo, al provocar mayor incertidumbre e ingobernabilidad social, y un menor crecimiento económico. Según cálculos publicados en el Quinto Informe del Estado de la Región: entre 2009 y 2014 aumentó la proporción de hogares centroamericanos excluidos ―unidades familiares con empleos precarios o desempleados que subsisten con ayudas del Estado u otras fuentes―, pasando de 36 a 39%, lo que equivale a 4.2 millones de hogares, es decir, 18 millones de personas. En ese contexto, la pobreza muestra su rostro más amargo en los habitantes rurales, con mayor énfasis en poblaciones indígenas y en mujeres. Alrededor del 69.0% de la población rural centroamericana vive en situación de pobreza, en contraste con el 33.0% de la personas que habitan en la zonas urbanas.

Es por ello que emprender una lucha contundente y efectiva contra la pobreza y el hambre requiere avanzar en una agenda de desarrollo rural. En un estudio publicado por el Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales y el Fondo Internacional para el Desarrollo Agrícola, se presentaron las bases para allanar el camino a un desarrollo rural integral en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua. Esta agenda puede ser la base de un diálogo social que acuerde mejoras en las políticas públicas y programas para el sector rural, orienten avances en calidad y cobertura en la protección social, la infraestructura rural y la protección ambiental, así como esfuerzos para reconstruir o reconstituir el tejido social y la identidad cultural.
Asimismo, dichas propuestas permiten encadenamientos de la agricultura con otros sectores económicos (agroindustria, turismo, financiero, concesiones forestales); garantizar la disponibilidad de activos productivos esenciales en las áreas rurales (tierra, agua, electricidad); invertir en desarrollo tecnológico aplicado a la agricultura y a otras actividades; garantizar una protección social adecuada a los habitantes de las zonas rurales, con la universalización del acceso a la educación y la salud; Garantizar el uso y gestión sostenible de los recursos naturales; y aprovechar la cultura campesina, indígena y afrodescendiente para la construcción de «una forma propia de desarrollo».

Entre 2007 y 2012, los países del CA4 apenas invirtieron entre USD0.59 (Nicaragua) y USD1.42 (El Salvador) diarios en cada habitante de áreas rurales. Para que la agenda de desarrollo rural promovida se cumpla, los países centroamericanos deberán invertir entre el 6.4 y el 9.8% del PIB para el 2025.  En el Día Mundial de la Alimentación conviene recordar que un pueblo sin hambre constituye uno de los sustentos más importantes para la democracia y el desarrollo. Los ciudadanos centroamericanos deben lograr que la política fiscal de sus Estados se ajuste a esta máxima.

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