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La justicia social no es una mercancía

Este 20 de febrero se celebra por décima ocasión y a nivel mundial el día de la justicia social, momento para recordar que toda sociedad está llamada, por su propia cohesión y éxito, a distribuir entre todos sus miembros los frutos del progreso económico. Esto solo es posible si se garantiza la protección y cumplimiento de los derechos humanos: civiles, políticos, económicos, ambientales, culturales y sociales.

En los últimos treinta años,  el debilitamiento de lo público —entendido como espacio, ideas colectivas e instituciones para el bien común—, impulsado por el fundamentalismo neoliberal, ha provocado, con diferente intensidad en los países centroamericanos, efectos nocivos para la justicia social, evidenciados en una insuficiente inversión social en la que se ha ido eliminando el espíritu universalista de políticas tales como la educación, la salud, la seguridad social y el empleo, entre otras.

La reducción del papel de lo público es visible también en la trivialización de las políticas económicas que han sido condenadas, en el caso de la monetaria, al limitado manejo de la inflación; en la productiva, a la búsqueda desordenada y sin criterios técnicos  de acuerdos comerciales; y en la fiscal, al control del déficit y de la deuda pública, mientras se amplían los privilegios fiscales hacia ciertas élites que utilizan su poder económico para prostituir un poder político en muchas ocasiones más atento al dinero que a alguna ideología. Todo esto ha traído consigo un amenazador debilitamiento de las ideas democráticas.

La coyuntura actual atestada de actores políticos con discursos repletos de odio e ignorancia, y con acciones contra la migración y las relaciones internacionales, es precisamente la consecuencia de un sistema político y económico que está en deuda con las grandes mayorías.  La globalización, pensada como elemento para la emancipación de los seres humanos en todo el mundo por medio del acceso a conocimientos, culturas, tecnologías, territorios, recursos y mejores formas de producción, ha quedado reducida a una globalización mercantil y financiera que acrecienta la desigualdad, al tiempo en que fomenta los paraísos fiscales y transfiere el poder de los Estados en las decisiones sobre el bienestar de sus ciudadanos a empresas multinacionales y élites económicas nacionales.

Esta globalización ha evaluado la competitividad en términos de reducción de tiempos para hacer negocios u horas destinadas por las empresas al pago de impuestos y a cómo reducir los trámites de exportación, mientras deja fuera de su examen los crecientes problemas de pobreza e ingobernabilidad democrática. Mientras se reducen las trabas al comercio, se amplían los muros que evitan el avance de la civilización actual: la injusticia social, la desigualdad y la irresponsabilidad frente al cambio climático.

Si los centroamericanos desean vivir en Estados democráticos y con la certeza de que las generaciones siguientes tendrán un mayor bienestar que las actuales, entonces toca acordar los estándares de justicia social que se desean mantener y sobre los que se quiere avanzar, reconociendo derechos y obligaciones. Esta no es una decisión del mercado o de su fantasiosa mano invisible.

La justicia social no es una mercancía, es la columna vertebral que articula la democracia y el desarrollo, por lo tanto sus alcances requieren una amplia discusión política que forje acuerdos concretos, principalmente, sobre el crecimiento económico, la protección ambiental, el empleo y un ingreso garantizado para cada ciudadano; la equidad por medio de la universalización y mejora en la calidad de los bienes y servicios públicos; y sobre el papel de Estado y en particular de la política fiscal.

La política fiscal también debe ser reformulada para ajustar sus objetivos hacia la justicia social. Primero, el gasto público debe enfocarse en el logro de objetivos de desarrollo y estar sujeto a evaluación.  Segundo, los ingresos públicos deben basarse en principios de progresividad (quien tiene más paga más), equidad (a igual ingreso, igual impuesto) y suficiencia (la recaudación busca equilibrar los ingresos frente al gasto). Tercero, aumentar la participación ciudadana por medio de espacios formales de discusión de los presupuestos públicos, a niveles nacional y local, y lograr un mayor acceso de los ciudadanos a la información fiscal. Finalmente, luchar contra todas las formas de corrupción pública y privada que atentan contra la justicia social, modernizando el marco legal e institucional, fortaleciendo el servicio civil y estableciendo estándares más altos de probidad social.

Empresarios, trabajadores, políticos, académicos, estudiantes y ciudadanos en general, están obligados a lograr un nuevo contrato social que cambie la catastrófica ruta actual de la región. Frente al desempleo, la corrupción, la violencia, la pobreza y la incertidumbre en la que vive la mayoría, vale la pena recordar que otra Centroamérica es posible: una con justicia social. Pero esa Centroamérica con mayor bienestar, oportunidades e igualdad requiere un cambio drástico que ponga por delante del interés privado, el bien de todos.

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