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Renta básica universal: un instrumento para la igualdad y el crecimiento económico

La renta básica universal (RBU) es un monto de dinero que el Estado asigna de forma incondicional a cada miembro de la sociedad por el simple hecho de ser ciudadano. Dicha renta, cuyo monto toma en cuenta el costo de consumos vitales, sirve para elevar el bienestar de todas las personas, disminuir la desigualdad y la pobreza al tiempo en que su ejecución dinamiza la actividad económica, genera empleo y disminuye la conflictividad social.

En el caso centroamericano otro de los beneficios de la aplicación de una renta básica universal está relacionado con la formalización de la economía y el aumento del número de contribuyentes. Los recursos asignados a cada ciudadano solo pueden ser utilizados por estos en negocios inscritos ante la administración tributaria, acotando así los canales informales que provocan competencia desleal mediante la evasión de impuestos, el contrabando y el fomento de actividades ilícitas. El producto final o servicio adquirido con la renta básica obliga a formalizar todo el ciclo de producción.

Centroamérica: población, personas en pobreza total y extrema y costo de la canasta básica de alimentos
País Población Pobreza Canasta básica alimentaria (CBA)
Total Extrema Monto mensual por hogar Promedio de miembros por hogar Monto mensual por persona
En millones Como porcentaje del total de la población En USD dólares En USD dólares
2014 Entre 2015 y 2016
Costa Rica 4.9 22.4 6.7 328.2 3.3 100.7
El Salvador 6.4 31.8 7.6 382.3 3.6 107.7
Guatemala 15.9 59.3 22.4 526.3 5.4 97.8
Honduras 8.3 62.8 39.7 349.9 5.0 70.0
Nicaragua 6.2 29.6 8.3 303.6 4.4 69.5
Panamá 3.9 25.8 11 301.3 3.5 86.1
Centroamérica 45.6 45.2 18.9      
Fuente: Icefi con base en estadísticas oficiales y estimaciones de organismos internacionales.

En la actualidad muchas iniciativas sobre RBU se discuten en países como Canadá, Finlandia, Francia, Escocia, España, Namibia, India, e incluso ha tenido un espacio en el Foro Económico Mundial de 2017, mientras se evalúan aquellas iniciativas que han sido puestas en práctica en los últimos 50 años. Por ejemplo, en la ciudad canadiense de Dauphin, en los años setenta, se evaluó el impacto sobre la salud pública por la dotación durante cuatro años de una RBU (USD4,800 anuales). Entre los principales hallazgos, se destaca la disminución de contactos médicos por salud mental y reducción de costos hospitalarios por accidentes y lesiones, demostrando la relación entre la inseguridad de ingresos y la mala salud. En Estados Unidos, entre 1968 y 1980, se hicieron cuatro experimentos de RBU (Seattle, Denver, Carolina del Norte, Nueva Jersey e Indiana), con más de 200 artículos académicos en los que se evalúan los impactos. Entre los resultados positivos se observan mejoras en rendimiento escolar, peso al nacer y propiedad de vivienda. Más recientemente, un estudio sobre el impacto de una versión de RBU en Cantabria (España), de 2011 a 2015, arroja resultados importantes por el aumento de demanda, empleo y salarios, siendo las ramas económicas más beneficiadas de Cantabria las actividades inmobiliarias, la industria manufacturera y el comercio.

A pesar de los resultados económicos, políticos y sociales de las RBU, tres preguntas suelen estar en el ambiente económico y político al discutir sobre este instrumento de política pública. Primero, sobre el desincentivo al trabajo que puede generar. En ese sentido, al ser esta una medida universal, su entrega no depende de la condición de trabajador o desempleado del receptor, con lo que acceder a un empleo hace que el beneficiario sume más recursos para su bienestar y, dependiendo de sus ingresos laborales, incluso comenzará a pagar impuesto sobre la renta. Es claro que empleos informales, de alto riesgo o con salarios muy bajos serán menos atractivos para los ciudadanos.

Ejemplo hipotético

Aplicación de impuesto negativo sobre la renta

Con un mínimo exento de USD4,000 anuales y una tasa de ISR única de 25% en bases imponibles positivas y 100% en negativas
(A) Ingresos brutos anuales (B) Mínimo vital exento (C) Base imponible = (A) – (B) (D) Pago de Impuesto sobre la renta (E) Renta neta = (A) – (D) (F) Tipo medio = (D)/(A)
En US Dólares En porcentaje
60,000.0 4,000.0 56,000.0 14,000.0 46,000.0 23.3
30,000.0 4,000.0 26,000.0 6,500.0 23,500.0 21.7
15,000.0 4,000.0 11,000.0 2,750.0 12,250.0 18.3
8,000.0 4,000.0 4,000.0 1,000.0 7,000.0 12.5
5,000.0 4,000.0 1,000.0 250.0 4,750.0 5.0
4,000.0 4,000.0 0.0 0.0 4,000.0 0.0
3,000.0 4,000.0 -1,000.0 -1,000.0 4,000.0 -33.3
2,500.0 4,000.0 -1,500.0 -1,500.0 4,000.0 -60.0
1,000.0 4,000.0 -3,000.0 -3,000.0 4,000.0 -300.0
0.0 4,000.0 -4,000.0 -4,000.0 4,000.0  
Fuente: Icefi.

En segundo término, se discute sobre si la RBU se sumará a otros programas de protección a poblaciones empobrecidas. En realidad, las RBU ayudan a ordenar la administración pública al concentrar las fuerzas en la gestión de políticas públicas prioritarias para el desarrollo: educación, salud, vivienda, trabajo, justicia y seguridad, transformación productiva e inversión pública económica y social. Se eliminan muchos programas de asistencia social que intentan infructuosamente ayudar a combatir la pobreza —pero que son presas de altos costos de administración, clientelismo, corrupción y estigmatización de sus beneficiarios— y aquellos de asistencialismo empresarial que otorgan privilegios fiscales a ciertos sectores económicos —y también abren la puerta a corrupción y cooptación de las instituciones públicas— bajo el supuesto de que pueden atraer más inversiones o generar empleo.

Finalmente, la gran pregunta estriba sobre cómo financiar una RBU. En ese sentido, parte de los recursos proviene de la eliminación de programas de apoyo a personas y empresas con comprobado bajo efecto tanto en la reducción de pobreza como en la generación de empleo o la productividad. Por otro lado, se requiere una reforma integral del impuesto sobre la renta, que lo dote de mayor progresividad y aumente su recaudación. Los modelos más discutidos son aquellos que se refieren a un impuesto negativo sobre la renta que se fundamenta en la idea de que existe un monto de ingresos que no debe ser gravado por ser el mínimo para vivir. Este mínimo se descuenta de los ingresos disponibles antes de calcular el impuesto sobre la renta a pagar. Si el ingreso del contribuyente es inferior al mínimo, entonces, se obtiene un pago de impuesto negativo que es el monto que el Estado debe entregar al ciudadano.

La existencia de una RBU implica profundos cambios para cualquier sociedad. En Centroamérica la RBU puede constituir un motor que impulse el crecimiento económico interno y regional, dinamizando actividades industriales, comerciales y financieras, y promoviendo empleos y salarios suficientes para elevar el bienestar y la cohesión social. Su implementación en Centroamérica requiere una modernización de la administración pública, una manera más justa y efectiva de recaudar los impuestos y una reforma económica de gran calado. Tres tareas difíciles a las que se suma la más compleja: reconocer que la pobreza y exclusión de casi la mitad de los centroamericanos socava permanentemente nuestros anhelos de democracia y el desarrollo.

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