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Luces y sombras de la transparencia en las actividades extractivas

Observatorio Fiscal

Casi dos terceras partes de la población pobre a nivel mundial viven en los países que son ricos en recursos naturales. Es por ello que en el ámbito de las actividades extractivas, la transparencia fiscal es fundamental, en el sentido de que los ingresos públicos generados por dichas actividades, más allá de generar beneficios macroeconómicos, se traduzcan en oportunidades para elevar las condiciones de vida de la población, en un marco regulatorio que garantice el cumplimiento de los derechos de las personas a decidir la explotación o no de los recursos, y promueva una relación con el fisco basada en la búsqueda del bien común.

Independientemente de si los ingresos fiscales generados por actividades extractivas son altos o bajos con respecto al tamaño total de la economía en la que se explotan, si su gestión y manejo se realizan de manera poco transparente, difícilmente se traducirán en mejoras en las condiciones de vida de la población.

Tal es la importancia de la transparencia fiscal en el sector extractivo, que a nivel mundial existen múltiples iniciativas que buscan reducir la opacidad de dichos sectores, entre las cuales destacan: reporte país por país (Unión Europea), Ley Dodd-Frank (Estados Unidos), Publiquen lo que Pagan, Iniciativa de Transparencia en la Industria Extractiva (EITI por sus siglas en inglés) y el Índice de Gobernanza de los Recursos Naturales IGR, entre otras.

Por su amplio alcance en la evaluación de la transparencia, vale la pena detenerse en el IGR, desarrollado por el Natural Resource Governance Institute (antes conocido con el nombre Revenue Watch Institute). Dicho índice evalúa la calidad de la transparencia y la rendición de cuentas en los sectores extractivos (petróleo, minería y gas natural). La evaluación considera el desempeño de los países en cuatro componentes: a) el entorno legal e institucional; b) las prácticas de acceso a la información; c) las salvaguardas y control de calidad; y, d) las condiciones generales de gobernabilidad. También incluye información sobre tres mecanismos comúnmente utilizados para administrar el petróleo, gas y minerales: las empresas propiedad del Estado, los fondos de recursos naturales y las transferencias subnacionales de ingresos. La puntuación obtenida en el IGR puede ser entre 0 y 100, lo cual permite clasificar a los sectores extractivos de los países en cuatro niveles de transparencia: deficiente (0-40), débil (41-50), parcial (51-70) y satisfactorio (71-100) (Revenue Watch Institute, 2013).

Un reciente estudio del consorcio Icefi/IBIS retoma la metodología del IGR y evalúa la transparencia de los sectores mineros y petroleros de Guatemala y los compara con los resultados obtenidos del IGR para 58 países en el año 2013. El IGR 2013 muestra que solo 11 de los países estudiados presentan niveles satisfactorios de transparencia en sus sectores extractivos los demás países, el público carece de información fundamental sobre el manejo del petróleo, gas y minerales.

Los países latinoamericanos evaluados con el IGR 2013 (incluyendo los sectores petrolero y minero de Guatemala) presentan una puntuación promedio de 66, lo que los coloca 15 puntos por encima del promedio global (51). De los 11 sectores extractivos estudiados, 6 presentan un nivel satisfactorio de transparencia, 4 un nivel parcial y únicamente el sector minero guatemalteco presenta un nivel débil de transparencia y rendición de cuentas.
A pesar de que el desempeño regional puede considerarse parcialmente satisfactorio, los países de América Latina deben tomar acciones correctivas que permitan mejorar la transparencia de las actividades extractivas: a) revisar y evaluar el marco legal en el que se desarrollan las actividades extractivas; b) publicar de oficio la información vinculada al sector, que incluya desde la solicitud de un derecho de reconocimiento, hasta el cierre de la explotación; c) publicar información detallada de los ingresos públicos generados por el sector extractivos, así como los gastos públicos financiados con dichos recursos; d) garantizar la accesibilidad de la información que se publique; e) promover reformas institucionales para la reducción de la corrupción y el fortalecimiento del Estado de Derecho, principalmente en lo que se refiere a la garantía del derecho de las comunidades a decidir si las actividades extractivas deben promoverse o no en su territorio.

Puntuación del Índice de Gobernanza de los Recursos para América Latina y el Caribe

Tabla de ICEFI

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