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Ángela Marzo
Cultura y cambio organizacional

Si no controlas la cultura…ella te controla a ti… | Angela Marzo

“La única cosa realmente importante que hacen los líderes es crear y ejercer control sobre la cultura.  Si no controlas la cultura, ella te controla a ti y puede que no estés ni siquiera consciente del alcance y la medida en la que esto está sucediendo” – Edgar Schein

Todas las organizaciones cuentan una cultura que las define e impacta las relaciones y los resultados. Sea que hablemos de una cultura definida por comportamientos positivos o por comportamientos tóxicos, igual está ahí, lo queramos o no, nos guste o no, estemos o no conscientes de la misma o de su impacto.

Este espacio tiene como objetivo compartir y generar discusión sobre un tema que por lo regular es visto como algo abstracto y difícil de comprender. Aunque debo reconocer que es complejo, una vez se comprenden la relación entre cada elemento, el tema cultura organizacional llega a ser sumamente práctico.

Nos encontramos en momento clave en el que los tomadores de decisiones le están dando más importancia a la estrategia, a la gestión de la cultura y del talento en lugar de enfocarse únicamente en los resultados financieros.  El diálogo ha cambiado y el enfoque sobre qué elementos priorizar para el logro de resultados se basa en modelos de gestión mucho más aterrizados, poniendo un mayor énfasis en modelos basados en las personas. Bajo la premisa de que si, como organización, damos mayor importancia a las personas, los resultados vendrán por añadidura.  La apuesta está en el enfoque y en las herramientas utilizadas.

Es por ello, y dada su importancia, que me gustaría dedicar esta entrega a desmitificar el concepto de cultura organizacional y lograr un lenguaje común, un acuerdo en cuanto a la definición del término.

Iniciamos con las definiciones que tradicionalmente encontramos de cultura…

Según Ancona et Al. (2009), la perspectiva cultural hace hincapié en lo que la gente debe aprender para convertirse en miembros funcionales de la organización y ser aceptados. Se enfoca en el significado que las personas atribuyen a sus respectivas experiencias de trabajo.

De acuerdo a estos autores, las personas en las organizaciones se convierten en constructores de significado, portadores de identidad, actores morales, usuarios de símbolos, narradores de historias… que participan activamente en la vida de la empresa y, a través de la interacción con otros, que continuamente crean, mantienen y modifican los eventos, actividades, procesos y productos.

Por otro lado, Edgar Schein (1990) nos dice que la cultura es lo que un grupo aprende durante un período de tiempo en relación a como el grupo resuelve sus problemas de supervivencia en un entorno externo y sus problemas de integración interna.

Schein se refiere a la cultura como un patrón de supuestos básicos; inventado, descubierto o desarrollado por un grupo determinado que aprende a hacer frente a sus problemas de adaptación externa e integración interna; que ha funcionado lo suficientemente bien como para ser considerado válido y, por lo tanto, se debe enseñar a los nuevos miembros como la forma correcta de percibir, pensar y sentir en relación a esos problemas.

El mayor desafío se da cuando la cultura existente se encuentra influenciada por comportamientos tóxicos que desvían la atención de lo realmente importante fomentando la intimidación, la competencia interna, las batallas de ego y luchas de poder que impiden a una organización construir en positivo hacia el futuro.

Varios autores, entre ellos, mi autora preferida en el tema de Cultura, Carolyn Taylor, definen el término cultura de una manera mucho más práctica: La cultura es una cuestión de mensajes.

«Una cultura describe las normas de conducta que han sido establecidas a través de los mensajes recibidos sobre “cómo se hacen las cosas aquí» – Carolyn Taylor

Y de hecho es así, la cultura está relacionada con los mensajes enviados y recibidos (principalmente por los líderes o personas en posiciones de poder).  Estos mensajes demuestran qué es valorado e importante; lo que la gente alrededor hace para encajar, ser aceptados y reconocidos.

Estoy totalmente de acuerdo con Carolyn en que la cultura cambia cuando estos mensajes también cambian a través del tiempo.

Estos mensajes son recibidos a través de 3 canales: símbolos, sistemas y conductas. Yo añado a estos 3 el concepto de rituales o actividades del día a día dentro de la empresa que comunican con claridad la importancia y cómo los líderes de alto nivel pasan su tiempo y atención. (i.e. ¿cómo se asigna el presupuesto? ¿en que se invierte el tiempo, los recursos, la atención y la energía?).

¿Se invierte en establecer un norte claro, revisión de indicadores de gestión, establecimiento de planes y proyectos concretos de mejora, seguimiento a estos proyectos? (Cultura de Alto Desempeño) ¿Se invierte e análisis de indicadores de satisfacción, retención, fidelización de clientes? (Cultura de Servicio).

Frente a los nuevos retos, comprender, ampliar y complementar nuestro conocimiento de los programas relacionados con definir y fomentar la cultura deseada y con el desarrollo y la retención del talento en las organizaciones es vital.

La creación de una cultura organizacional sólida no es una tarea fácil.  Un ambiente laboral sano no ocurre por casualidad.  Se requiere trabajo duro.  De acuerdo a los pocos expertos en el tema a nivel mundial, un cambio de esta naturaleza demanda un mínimo de 3 años para lograr controlar todos los elementos y esto dependiendo del nivel de madurez de la organización y de que se den los pasos correctos.

Es cierto que las organizaciones pueden hacer más de lo que están haciendo, también es cierto que fomentar conductas virtuosas no es una responsabilidad única del departamento de recursos humanos, gestión humana o capital humano.  Creo que es ya de común acuerdo que el cambio cultural inicia por la cabeza, los líderes que son ejemplo de cómo se hacen las cosas aquí y ahora, y son capaces de contagiar al resto de la organización, transmitiendo a cada persona el sentido de responsabilidad de hacer su parte.

De hecho, en el artículo donde presenta el último ranking elaborado por TheTopCompanies sobre los centros de trabajo mejor valorados por sus colaboradores en América Latina y que será presentado en la última edición de El Economista, Maria José Saavedra expresa que las empresas que deciden mirar hacia adentro son decididas y tienen una visión diferente de los resultados que esperan, pero sobre todo son valientes.

La valentía es importante al iniciar una jornada de transformación cultural, pero la confianza en el proceso es también vital.

 

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