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La relación entre patentes e innovación: ¿El otorgamiento de patentes beneficia siempre la innovación?

Autora: Mónika Hasbún*

Es una idea generalmente aceptada que la concesión de patentes, en un sentido económico, funciona como un sistema de incentivos para fomentar la innovación. No obstante, debemos recordar que de los sistemas de incentivos pueden derivar algunas ineficiencias, por lo que se hace necesario cuestionar y evaluar los casos en los cuales las patentes no resultan necesariamente en un incentivo a la innovación e, incluso, el sistema mismo puede llegar a actuar en detrimento de ésta.

La Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual define la patente como “…un derecho exclusivo concedido a una invención, es decir, un producto o procedimiento que aporta, en general, una nueva manera de hacer algo o una nueva solución técnica a un problema”. Este derecho es concedido por el Estado y suele ser de veinte años. El titular de la patente es quien decide quién puede utilizar la invención patentada. Cualquier producto o procedimiento que se encuentre protegido de esta manera, no puede ser confeccionada, utilizada, distribuida o vendida comercialmente sin el consentimiento de su titular.

El argumento más extendido para justificar la concesión de patentes es la necesidad de estimular la invención. Innovar se basa en la idea de producir conocimiento. El conocimiento, por su naturaleza de bien público, presenta dos características: Primero, la cantidad de conocimiento disponible no disminuye cuando otros los utilizan (“consumo no rival”). Además, una vez ha sido producido, no se puede evitar que otros se beneficien de él (“consumo no excluyente”). Los aspectos apuntados producen un fallo de mercado y da lugar a que no existan suficientes incentivos para que los agentes busquen innovar.

Para resolver este dilema, el sistema de patentes establece dos mecanismos que permiten al inventor maximizar sus externalidades: (i) La concesión de un monopolio temporal sobre la invención, lo cual actúa como un mecanismo de protección que permite compensar al titular, por la remuneración proveniente de su posición de dominio, por un tiempo y un área geográfica determinadas; y, (ii) La exigencia de publicar la invención, debiendo el titular divulgar y publicar los detalles de su innovación. Así, las patentes, al conferir los derechos al titular para excluir a los competidores del mercado y exigir la publicación de los detalles de la innovación, ofrecen, en principio, el incentivo para el estudio de nuevas tecnologías. Existen, sin embargo, casos en los cuales las patentes no funcionan necesariamente como un incentivo a la innovación.

Nos referiremos primero a la calidad de la patente que se otorga. La idea básica es la siguiente: Si todo es patentable, no hay innovación. Si se conceden patentes sobre productos o servicios que no son novedosos, aquellos que verdaderamente lo son, podrían no obtener la protección requerida. Esta utilización estratégica del sistema de patentes de dudosa calidad, impide a terceros innovar y competir en la creación de productos verdaderamente innovadores. Por ejemplo, en el mercado de productos farmacéuticos se discute mucho acerca de la auténtica innovación, comparada con simples cambios químicos o de formulación. En ese sentido, se reconoce que se debe analizar más de cerca las solicitudes de patentes relativas a dichas invenciones, para asegurar que la supuesta innovación abarcada en la solicitud de la patentes merece la concesión de un derecho de monopolio.

También debe considerarse que dependiendo del sector en el que se busque incentivar la innovación, el otorgamiento de patentes puede resultar innecesario. Por ejemplo, según investigaciones realizadas, las patentes no parecen ser esenciales para promover la innovación en el sector de servicios. Los beneficios proporcionados por las ventajas de llegar primero al mercado, los activos complementarios y las externalidades de redes resultan, en ocasiones, suficientes para que los inventores recuperen los costes de su inversión en I+D en las empresas de servicios, y decidan innovar. Se reconoce, incluso, que cuando una invención puede mantenerse en secreto, sin mayor problema, las patentes pueden no resultar necesarias.

De una manera similar, la innovación en la PYME suele realizarse de manera más “informal”, tratándose generalmente de mejoras incrementales o pequeñas modificaciones a productos existentes y, además, suelen responder a necesidades concretas del mercado. Para empresas pequeñas es difícil destinar recursos para obtener este tipo de protección, ya que hacerlo implicaría dejar de destinar recursos a sus actividades de innovación propiamente dichas. Éstas prefieren utilizar estrategias de protección alternativas, como el tiempo de lanzamiento en el mercado, la inversión en activos complementarios, entre otros.

Por último, el nivel de desarrollo de un país también es un factor determinante al analizar la eficacia del sistema de patentes. La asimetría en las capacidades de innovación entre los países desarrollados y en desarrollo influye en la manera que los agentes de estos países responden al sistema de protección de patentes. En el caso de los países en desarrollo, a diferencia de los países desarrollados, las empresas demandan y consumen más tecnología que la que producen internamente, volviéndose “importadores de tecnología”. Su gasto en I+D es sumamente limitado, por lo que el otorgamiento de patentes es prácticamente nulo. Las empresas de este tipo de países se limitan a la imitación y adaptación de tecnologías, por lo que el otorgamiento de patente se hace innecesario e, incluso, puede llegar a actuar como barrera a la importación de diferentes tecnologías. Además, los países en desarrollo generalmente no cuentan con sistemas de protección de patentes lo suficientemente maduros como para que este mecanismo jurídico logre actuar como un incentivo a la innovación.

Los derechos de patente y la competencia están estrechamente vinculados. Por un parte, la legislación sobre patentes busca incentivar la innovación por medio del otorgamiento de un derecho exclusivo que impide que la invención patentada sea explotada comercialmente por terceros. Por el otro, las normas de competencia buscan impedir el abuso que los titulares pueden hacer de los derechos que les han sido otorgados.

Considerando que el otorgamiento de patentes puede convertirse en un instrumento jurídico que obstruya la competencia, debe valorarse, de acuerdo a las ideas expuestas, que su justificación no se encuentra siempre legitimada. No se puede afirmar que el otorgamiento de patentes fomente siempre la innovación, resultando, en determinados casos, innecesario o, incluso, dañino para la misma. Por tanto, para un uso adecuado del sistema de patentes y las compensaciones que éste ofrece, y no restringir excesivamente la competencia, debe evaluarse minuciosamente el contexto bajo el cual se estaría otorgando la patente, para poder afirmar su eficacia.

 

– Los comentarios en este artículo expresan la opinión del autor-

 

* La autora es abogado y notario, con Licenciatura en Ciencias Jurídicas de la Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado y Postgrado en Gerencia de Políticas Públicas, así como en Derecho, Economía y Negocios. Actualmente funge como Abogada de la Intendencia Económica de la Superintendencia de Competencia

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