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Superintendencia de Competencia
Competencia

La colusión tácita y explícita

Autor: Edson Magaña* @MaganaEd

Entendiendo el concepto de colusión en una frase… basta con citar al padre de la economía, el gran Adam Smith en su pronunciamiento realizado en el siglo XVIII: “los comerciantes del mismo rubro rara vez se reúnen, incluso para entretenimiento y diversión, pero la conversación termina en una conspiración contra el público, o en alguna estratagema para aumentar los precios”[1].

Partiendo de esa óptica, el término colusión, de manera formal, se entiende como un acuerdo, tratado o pacto entre dos o más agentes económicos[2] que compiten en el mercado ya sea, horizontalmente (entre competidores) o verticalmente (entre no competidores), dicho acuerdo se realiza con el fin de limitar a un tercer competidor (o grupo de competidores), logrando de esta manera un privilegiado posicionamiento en el mercado[3].

En cuanto a las formas de colusión, se hace referencia a dos modalidades de acuerdos: Por una parte, los acuerdos tácitos[4] en donde “se incluyen las formas tácitas de imitación o equiparación voluntaria del comportamiento, que resultan en la coordinación consiente de las conductas de los agentes económicos, con el propósito de limitar la libre competencia entre los involucrados”.[5] Esta modalidad se distingue por: el seguimiento conscientemente paralelo, la imitación del comportamiento, la concertación o coordinación de conductas, entre otras, todas ellas sin un acuerdo expreso, sin una concertación física que avale la colusión, sin “el guiño de ojo” comprobado, sin la prueba determinante y tan fervientemente buscada por las autoridades de competencia, simplemente con un “meeting of the minds” [6], es decir, “un acuerdo… fundamentado en una reunión de mentes, que, aunque no plasmado en un acuerdo expreso se infiere como un hecho, a partir de la conducta de las partes que muestran, a la luz de las circunstancias, su conocimiento tácito.[7]

Por otra parte, los acuerdos explícitos[8] se realizan de manera consciente, acordada e intencionada por los agentes económicos involucrados en el cartel[9], con la maquiavélica finalidad de, entre otras,  eliminar a la competencia y aumentar sus ganancias. Se adoptan decisiones conjuntas, acordadas y premeditadas que se manifiestan en la economía por medio de una distorsión del mercado, fallos en la competencia y un agravio al consumidor. En esta modalidad existe una prueba incriminatoria penalizada, la famosa “smoking gun”, que delata el “pacto de caballeros” que se realiza entre competidores.

Es así que, la principal diferencia entre la colusión tácita y la explícita, radica en que, en el primer caso no coexiste un entendimiento formal entre las partes, sin embargo en un cartel si lo hay ya sea, por ejemplo, de forma verbal o escrita, obtenido a través de  reuniones de negocios o en gremiales, convivencias sociales, llamadas telefónicas, correos electrónicos, escrituras públicas, etc.

En este sentido, la conceptualización económica y jurídica sobre los tipos de colusión tiene diferentes enfoques. Mientras que la teoría económica no hace distinción conceptual entre ambas tipologías, sino más bien analiza los resultados obtenidos y no la conducta para lograrlos, la jurisprudencia aborda de diferente manera las vías para considerar sus efectos. Sin embargo, cuando existe una colusión entre competidores se manifiesta un efecto sobre el mercado, sobre la competencia y sobre los consumidores, independiente de la modalidad de la colusión, tácita o explícita. Según Arrieta de Carsana: “aunque la doctrina económica manifieste que las colusiones tácitas constituyen prácticas capaces de desplegar los mismos efectos anticompetitivos que un acuerdo expreso [o explícito][10], desde la perspectiva jurídica, tanto el sistema de defensa anglosajón, como el modelo europeo, se han mostrado prudentes el momento de sancionarlas

El derecho de competencia, en algunos países latinoamericanos, asume la colusión tácita de forma legal, mientras que la colusión explícita es penalizada por la autoridad de competencia. Sin embargo en América Latina se evidencia que la evolución del derecho de competencia tiene diferentes grados de desarrollo y la aplicación de las leyes es diversa entre países.

Al respecto puede mencionarse que, por ejemplo, Chile, Colombia, República Dominicana, México, Nicaragua, y Panamá contienen dentro de sus leyes disposiciones legales para la colusión tácita. En el caso de El Salvador esto se regula con un concepto jurídico indeterminado, al respecto, la SC ha manifestado: “es posible que, espontáneamente, un mercado presente precios similares como en un cartel [comerciantes o empresarios coludidos][11], sin necesidad que los agentes económicos participantes hayan formalizado un acuerdo explicito[12], es decir, que lo han hecho de forma tácita.

Por otro lado, entendiendo el paralelismo de precios como una expresión de la colusión tácita, se hace referencia al artículo 12 literal a) del reglamento de la Ley de Competencia de El Salvador: “Son criterios orientadores para la valoración de la existencia de acuerdos anticompetitivos entre competidores, a que se refiere el Art. 25 de la Ley, entre otros: a) Que exista una correlación positiva, importante y continuada en los precios de dos o más competidores, durante un período significativo de tiempo; y que no pueda ser atribuido a variaciones en los precios de los factores de producción.”

La definición de “acuerdos anticompetitivos” mencionados en el Art. 12 del reglamento, no hace distinción entre el tipo de colusión o acuerdo analizado, en ambos casos se podría evidenciar un paralelismo de precios o correlación positiva importante y continuada a lo largo del tiempo, ya sea por una coordinación tácita consciente, por un pacto tangible, por seguimiento del líder, o por otros factores atribuibles al mercado y no tanto a los agentes económicos involucrados, pero, aunque no se hace distinción de la conducta tanto una colusión tácita como explícita han causado efectos en el mercado.

Al respecto, la SC comentó que, “para que exista un cartel, debe existir un acuerdo [tácito o explícito][13] o cualquier otro tipo de acto consiente entre dos o más agentes económicos competidores que tenga como fin restringir, limitar o eliminar la competencia en el mercado. De esta forma, hay que tener en cuenta que el “paralelismo de precios” o “precios similares” entre varios agentes económicos no siempre constituye prueba suficiente para verificar la existencia de un acuerdo entre competidores, sino mas bien, serán considerados como indicios o medios de prueba para una eventual investigación de prácticas anticompetitivas[14]

A la fecha, la SC ha llevado a cabo 61 procedimientos de investigación de los cuales 15 han sido sancionados, sin especificar en las respectivas resoluciones si ha sido por colusión tácita o explícita.

 

* Economista  y catedrático con especialidad en métodos cuantitativos, actualmente fungiendo como Investigador de Prácticas Anticompetitivas en la Intendencia de Investigaciones de la Superintendencia de Competencia de El Salvador (SC).

 

– Los comentarios en este artículo expresan la opinión del autor –

 

[1] Smith Adam, La Riqueza de las Naciones, 1776

[2] Comerciante o empresario. De acuerdo a la resolución final del caso harineras emitida por la Superintendencia de El Salvador con referencia SC-005-O/NR-2008 se considera como agente económico toda persona natural o jurídica, pública o privada, dedicada directa o indirectamente a una actividad económica lucrativa o no.

[3] En el caso de acuerdos entre no competidores puede existir la excepción de que la colusión resulte en efectos pro-competitivos a la competencia, para mayor detalle ver el Art. 13 y 14 del Reglamento a la Ley de Competencia en El Salvador.

[4] Aquellos acuerdos entre competidores que no se demuestran o aprecian formalmente de manera física pero que se suponen o infieren por los hechos evidenciados.

[5] Arrieta de Carsana, Lilliam Virginia, Regulación de los Acuerdos entre Competidores en El Salvador, pág. 215.

[6] Copperweld v. Independence Tube CSJ case 467 US 752 (1984)

[7] the US Supreme Court in Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. v. United States (1923).

[8] Aquellos acuerdos entre competidores que se expresan clara y determinadamente a través de una evidencia física, verbal o por medio de testigos. No tienen otra explicación económica que sustente la actuación de los agentes económicos más que un cartel

[9] Siendo el cartel una forma de colusión, el glosario de términos de la Superintendencia de Competencia de El Salvador lo define como a un acuerdo entre agentes económicos que participan en el mismo mercado, con el objeto de fijar políticas conjuntas en cuanto a precios, cantidades de producción y división del mercado.

[10] Corchetes incluidos por el autor

[11] Corchetes incluidos por el autor

[12] Aprendamos sobre competencia, SC 2010, pág. 30

[13] Corchetes incluidos por el autor

[14] Aprendamos sobre competencia, SC 2010, pág. 30

618 Replies to “La colusión tácita y explícita

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