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IE Business School
Comercio

Arquitectos de las estructuras sociales

Santiago Iñiguez de Onzoño,
Presidente IE University

El mundo actual necesita, más que en las décadas anteriores, de buenos directivos y emprendedores. Para lograr este objetivo, es preciso reivindicar el valor social del buen empresario y de la actividad emprendedora, el fenómeno que puede propiciar la salida de cualquier crisis y promover el crecimiento económico. El mejor antídoto para combatir la intransigencia, el choque entre culturas, la mala política internacional o el auge del populismo y del nacionalismo excluyente, es desarrollar buenos negocios, crear nuevas empresas, innovar y generar riqueza y valor social.

¿Qué consejos daría a empresarios y directivos durante en las circunstancias actuales, con un entorno volátil y más incierto? En primer lugar, volver a las cuestiones básicas, a las reglas de oro de la buena práctica directiva, que muchos habrán aprendido en las escuelas de negocios, cuestiones relacionadas con la necesidad de formular una estrategia a largo plazo para sus empresas, la identificación de fórmulas sostenibles de generación de valor, la evaluación ajustada del riesgo, la adopción de planes de contingencia para prevenir escenarios negativos, la apuesta por el activo más valioso de la empresa -sin duda, el talento y las personas- y la búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades para innovar y renovar la empresa que dirijan.

Una manera alternativa de innovar es reducir los costes y aumentar la productividad, iniciativas comúnmente implementadas en situaciones de crisis, que reflejan también visión empresarial. Pero junto con las medidas de contención y ahorro, es preciso identificar otras cuestiones claves: cómo impulsar el negocio original, cómo renovar productos y servicios, a qué nuevos mercados geográficos se puede dirigir una empresa, si es oportuno diversificar la actividad y se existen posibles alianzas estratégicas que reduzcan el riesgo de nuestras operaciones.

El modelo de líder empresarial que he propuesto en los últimos años es el del directivo cosmopolita, que incluye tres atributos: responsable, cultivado y competente.

La responsabilidad del empresario cosmopolita se manifiesta en primer lugar en las relaciones con las personas que dirige y que componen la empresa. Como en otros ámbitos profesionales, los líderes saben orientar a sus equipos hacia el logro de objetivos de la mejor manera posible. Pero la responsabilidad del directivo se proyecta también hacia el resto de los stakeholders, que incluyen agentes sociales dentro y fuera de la empresa. La actividad del líder empresarial no puede eludir la evaluación por parte de la sociedad dado que las empresas son organizaciones esenciales para el desarrollo social, para la generación de valor, empleo y desarrollo económico. Con frecuencia se explica que, más allá de las responsabilidades legales que el empresario o directivo puedan tener en el ejercicio de su actividad, su comportamiento y sus decisiones van a ser sometidas al escrutinio social.

La proyección global de muchas empresas, a veces incluso independientemente de su tamaño, demandan del líder empresarial un talante abierto, una visión y comprensión del mundo amplia, tolerante, conocedora de las diversas culturas, de la diversidad humana y de las diversas formas de expresión de la civilización: en una palabra, un directivo cosmopolita ha de estar cultivado, debe tener la inquietud por ensanchar su conocimiento de otros pueblos, de las humanidades, de las artes o las ciencias, a lo largo de toda su vida. En ocasiones se piensa que con la edad se ha alcanzado un acervo cultural suficiente y que no es tan necesario aprender nuevo conocimiento como lo era en las primeras etapas de la vida. No obstante, los grandes sabios siempre se han caracterizado por su permanente inquietud por seguir aprendiendo, una humildad característica ante lo nuevo, una curiosidad insaciable ante lo distinto. Esta actitud de permanente apertura a las humanidades y las ciencias es la que puede permitir continuar desarrollando el espíritu emprendedor en las etapas de madures de la carrera profesional del directivo.

Y finalmente, los empresarios cosmopolitas son también competentes. conocen los fundamentos de su profesión y continúan actualizando esos conocimientos, y las habilidades necesarias a lo largo de toda su carrera, ya que el entorno empresarial está en permanente cambio. La formación continuada, la búsqueda de nuevas formas de innovación, de nuevo conocimiento empresarial, es una las características básicas del directivo cosmopolita.

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