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El conocimiento es como la levadura: Con la misma cantidad de harina, se produce más pan

Ramón Tejeiro es jefe de asistencia técnica del programa UE-CENPRPMYE: Apoyo al Desarrollo del Sector Privado en Centroamérica

Hace poco cayó en mis manos un informe de la Autoridad Irlandesa para el Desarrollo de la Agricultura y la Alimentación[1]. Lo más relevante de él es que incluso en ese país, con una agricultura tecnológicamente muy desarrollada, se habla de que la simple capacitación de los agricultores produciría una elevación del 50% en el rendimiento económico de las explotaciones.

En Centroamérica he visto cómo los campesinos dedican a sus cultivos grandes cantidades de energía humana y tiempo, para obtener resultados económicos menos que satisfactorios.

Asociando estas dos observaciones y sumándole lo que he visto en la Expo AgroVisión de Guatemala, se me ocurre que tenemos un gran potencial de multiplicación de la riqueza en el agro y de su diseminación, al que aún le falta bastante por rendir.

Más allá de la capacidad de seducción que tienen ideas como que en el garaje de al lado algún muchachito brillante vaya a desarrollar el próximo Facebook, está el hecho de que en Centroamérica hay casi seis millones de explotaciones agrícolas[2], que van desde lo micro a grandes fincas, y que podrían multiplicar sus ingresos por un factor probablemente muy alto con sólo incorporar algo más de tecnificación a esas explotaciones.

Para volver a la referencia del principio, comprobamos a través de la información del Banco Mundial[3] que mientras que en Irlanda, se registra una producción agrícola media por hectárea de 511 unidades, en Guatemala se reduce a 269 unidades y ¡en Nicaragua a 50!.

El Proyecto ADESEP, en CENPROMYPE, con financiación de la UE trabaja en la promoción de las MIPYMES y de los emprendimientos, participando en la cadena de tecnificación de la agricultura a través de la promoción de emprendimientos que suministran a los agricultores servicios tecnológicos o similares, así como fortaleciendo a las empresas MIPYME que ya lo hacen. La última actividad relevante de ADESEP/CENPROMYPE en esta línea ha sido la participación en la Expo AgroVisión, de Guatemala, en la que se pretendía poner a disposición del sector la mejor tecnología, servicios para mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos, y promover la aplicación de inteligencia y conocimiento para superar en calidad, en atractivo y en precio las ofertas de la competencia en los mercados internacionales… además de ofrecer mejores productos y más baratos a los ciudadanos de la región.

ADESEP/CENPROMYPE también está preparando un grupo de iniciativas para incrementar el valor que se puede retener en la región gracias a la articulación de la producción, para lo que no se puede olvidar que muchas de las cadenas nacen en el sector agropecuario, aunque finalmente se conviertan en productos sofisticados con alto nivel de procesamiento.

Sería sencillo, aunque atrevido, jugar con los números para aventurar inmensas elevaciones de las rentas personales y del PIB, pero sí podemos tener la seguridad de que cualquier incremento individual, por pequeño que sea, se convierte en algo muy relevante cuando se le multiplica por casi seis millones, justificando los esfuerzos que se deban aplicar a la elevación del nivel de tecnificación del sector.


[1] https://www.teagasc.ie/media/website/publications/2014/Teagasc_Impact_of_Education_Report.pdf

[2] Según la FAO, hay más de 5.88 millones de explotaciones agrarias, desde las micro a las mega. http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3788s/i3788s.pdf

[3] World Development Indicators http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.2

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