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Guatemala Emprende


Ingrid Figueroa-Santamaría es directora ejecutiva de CENPROMYPE
Iñaki Ortega es doctor en economía y director de Deusto Business School

¿Qué tienen en común dos ciudades separadas por más de once mil kilómetros y de continentes tan diferentes como América y Asia? La respuesta es dos buenas noticias de emprendimiento.

En Estambul nació el economista turco del MIT Daron Acemoglu que ha sido premiado este 21 de febrero con el prestigioso premio “Fronteras del Conocimiento” de la Fundación BBVA por su trabajo académico que ha ayudado a demostrar que el crecimiento económico sostenido de las naciones depende de las instituciones siempre que éstas sean inclusivas. Una semana antes en el Congreso de Guatemala se presentó la propuesta de ley de fortalecimiento del emprendimiento por parte del presidente de la comisión de pequeña y mediana empresa, Álvaro Arzú Escobar, acompañado por el viceministro de desarrollo de la MIPYME, Ezrra Israel Orozco, del gobierno de Guatemala. La nueva norma promueve, entre otras cosas, una inédita fórmula mercantil en el continente para crear una empresa, inspirada en la ley francesa de los autoemprendedores, que reduce los trámites y costes a la mínima expresión para las personas que quieran emprender.

Las instituciones son, para el profesor Acemoglu, las reglas de juego y los jugadores de un territorio para la actividad económica. Aquellos países con instituciones inclusivas que han promovido la igualdad de oportunidades, por ejemplo, han disfrutado de mejores niveles de desarrollo sostenibles. Pero los que han padecido instituciones extractivas que han propiciado políticas en contra de la redistribución de la riqueza, por muchos recursos naturales que hayan dispuesto, han estado abocados al subdesarrollo. Instituciones son los parlamentos democráticos que legislan para todos; las leyes que eliminan obstáculos para los más débiles y las empresas de los emprendedores que como nos confirman los académicos crean riqueza, empleo y provocan cohesión social.

Esas externalidades positivas de la iniciativa empresarial están detrás del hecho de que las administraciones públicas hayan querido apoyar al colectivo emprendedor durante los más recientes más de cien años, bien luchando contra los fallos de mercado que les impiden crecer, bien con apoyos directos para facilitar su supervivencia. Pero los gestores públicos, a la hora de implementar acciones, han diversificado en exceso el foco de actuación, con lo que se ha actuado en muchas ocasiones con incoherencia, cuando no con pura ineficacia. Además, las sucesivas crisis  han impulsado estas políticas, pero también han acentuado la necesidad de resultados visibles en un no largo plazo, lo que ha hecho que lo público haya desdeñado las actuaciones de ecosistema o de ambiente a favor de los programas concretos de impulso a determinados colectivos o sectores. Por ello, se hace necesario ganar coherencia y foco en la acción pública en este terreno.

El trabajo de estos meses que dio a luz a este proyecto de ley ha de permitir seguir uniendo fuerzas y coordinando estrategias por parte de los diferentes agentes implicados (gobiernos, empresas, emprendedores e instituciones educativas) porque solo así esta ley podrá ayudar a conseguir un auténtico capital emprendedor que garantice una economía basada en las personas, que crezca, cree empleo y además sea sostenible

Los Diputados promotores de la iniciativa de la ley de fomento al emprendimiento establecen nuevas figuras legales y mecanismos que apoyan directamente a los emprendedores, así como al ecosistema emprendedor a poder acceder a fuentes de financiamiento así como a capacitación.  El resultado a largo plazo que se busca con la ley es la modernización del sistema mercantil guatemalteco, así como mejorar y apoyar las habilidades empresariales de los emprendedores con el fin de disminuir la mortandad empresarial y fortalecer el sector de las MIPYMES con empresas cada día más dinámicas y competitivas. Los Diputados de la comisión de pequeña y mediana empresa del congreso de la República de Guatemala con el respaldo del viceministerio y la asistencia técnica del Centro Regional dePromoción de la MIPYME en Centroamérica (CENPROMYPE) han dado un paso muy importante para que Guatemala, al igual que los países con las economías más prosperas e innovadoras del mundo, pueda disponer de mayores niveles de emprendimiento.

Promoviendo iniciativas como esta  legislación se hace posible un marco legal  que facilite el acceso de estos Emprendedores a todas las herramientas que provee el Estado para legalizar sus empresas, así como generar un entorno favorable en donde se propicie el desarrollo y capacitación de los mismos. Cabe destacar, que dentro del articulado no sólo está la mencionada nueva figura mercantil de empresa de emprendimiento sino también el nuevo fondo Guatemala Emprende, la batería de medidas a favor de la simplificación administrativa, la educación emprendedora y la creación de los centros de emprendimiento e innovación.

La región centroamericana, con Guatemala como pieza clave, está inmersa en una trasformación económica y social apasionante. Contar con instituciones inclusivas como las que cita el profesor Acemoglu es un su célebre libro «Por qué fracasan los países » se antoja imprescindible para afrontar un futuro de progreso en el que la democracia, la leyes, los emprendedores y las MIPYMES tendrán un papel preponderante.

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