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Manuel Bermejo
Comercio

Gobernando la empresa familiar

Estimadas familias empresarias,
La empresa familiar constituye el principal sustrato del tejido industrial del mundo. Según datos diversos suponen el 80% de las empresas, cifra que se eleva aún más en economías en vías de desarrollo. También las empresas familiares aportan visión a largo plazo, vocación de continuidad, transmisión de la cultura empresarial de una generación. Un bien común que preservar.
Una de sus características diferenciales es el deseo de continuidad. Tener éxito con un nuevo proyecto empresarial depende de muchos factores para identificar una oportunidad y explotarla a satisfacción. Apenas 9 de cada diez nuevas empresas llegan al tercer año. Tener una empresa familiar que trascienda generaciones demanda, además, ocuparse de asuntos muy importantes aunque aparentemente no sean urgentes: armonía familiar, gestión de las expectativas de los miembros de la familia, valores, sucesión, legado, reputación, talento…. Esa agenda estratégica se define, se atiende y se controla desde los órganos de gobierno.

Las familias empresarias conforman un ecosistema que se va enriqueciendo a medida que crecen negocio, familia y actividades aledañas (gestión patrimonial, acción filantrópica, ..). A la generación fundadora se le van agregando hijos, nietos, familia política, directivos ajenos a la familia, o consejeros independientes. Como demanda todo ecosistema su sostenibilidad depende de finos equilibrios. Uno de las principales objetivos de la acción de gobierno debiera ser gestionar esos equilibrios en un entorno en el que se entremezclan continuamente aspectos económico/empresariales y socio/emocionales.

Gobernar la empresa familiar no es hacer un protocolo de familia que se guarda y al que no se da vida. Tampoco la aplicación, cual robot, de los códigos de buena gobernanza. Bajo mi perspectiva gobernar es la más alta tarea en una empresa. Supone tomar decisiones sobre los asuntos de la agenda estratégica. Exige visión holística, afán transformador y compromiso de la familia para destinar recursos y tiempo de calidad a la tarea. Gobernar la empresa familiar de hoy es tanto como liderar su transformación para adaptarse a este mundo nuevo que nos ha tocado vivir. Cambia el entorno de los negocios pero también las relaciones personales, puesto que las familias cada vez más se nutren de integrantes con diferentes cosmovisiones. Recomiendo abordar la tarea sobre bases de liderazgo positivo. Nada de construir absurdas relaciones pierde/pierde que surgen consecuencia de las pequeñas miserias humanas. La continuidad de la empresa familiar hoy demanda muchas capacidades. Nadie sobra, todos aportan si les ubicamos en la posición en la que fluyen y dan lo mejor de sí mismos

Para sistematizar la gobernanza propongo un modelo en seis pasos que desarrollo en profundidad en mi nuevo libro “Gobernando la empresa familiar: con visión transformadora y liderazgo positivo” (Pearson, 2.017)

ENTENDER EL CONTEXTO: las familias empresarias deben salir de su endogamia para desarrollar mecanismos de visión de un entorno que cada vez nos influye más

ANALIZAR SUS SINGULARIDADES: tomar conciencia de esas singularidades, potenciando aquellos aspectos que ayudan a impulsas sólidas ventajas competitivas.

DEFINIR LOS RETOS DE FAMILIA: la primera prioridad es definir muy bien los retos de familia para gestionar la necesaria cohesión en torno a un proyecto y valores compartidos.

DEFINIR LOS RETOS DE NEGOCIO: hoy hay que gobernar las empresas con un enorme espíritu emprendedor para adaptarnos a un mundo complejo y muy dinámico. Esta será la base del anhelado crecimiento sostenido y rentable al que ambicionan muchas familias empresarias. Eso sí, crecer sin perder la esencia.

AVANZAR HACIA LA EMPRESA FAMILIAR 4.0.: las compañías familiares deben apurarse para convertirse en Empresas Familiares 4.0, aquellas que se transforman para competir en un nuevo entorno.

BUSCAR LA AYUDA EXTERNA: hay que dejarse ayudar en ese proceso de institucionalización para gobernar en clave de legado, de propósito superior.

La gobernanza de la empresa familiar se acaba resumiendo en pocas, pero muy trascendentes cuestiones. Cuando he profundizado en estos asuntos con muchas familias empresarias acabo sintiendo que dos son los últimos fines que persiguen: felicidad y sostenibilidad. Que el negocio sea sostenible y que la familia sea feliz. No olviden estas esencias a la hora de construir el legado familiar.

Hasta pronto. No dejen de esforzarse por ser muy felices que, al final del día, es lo más importante para Vds y quienes les rodean

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