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Luis Fernando Rincón Cuéllar
Comercio

Gobierno Corporativo en las Empresas de Familia

En la composición de las empresas bases de la economía de los países latinoamericanos, las empresas familiares constituyen una porción importante. Infortunadamente las estadísticas de la región muestran que es común que éstas empresas no sobrevivan a la tercera generación, ya que tradicionalmente durante la primera se construye la empresa, en la segunda generación se utiliza y en la tercera desaparece. Esto se debe a la falta de estructuración que les impide alcanzar un grado de profesionalización y maduración que les permita competir efectivamente en el mercado.

Entre los errores más comunes que cometen las empresas familiares o de familias asociadas, se encuentran el que no se discrimina entre los gastos de la compañía y los gastos de la familia; el que los miembros de la familia confunden los bienes de la empresa con los de su propio patrimonio; el que se contrate a miembros de la familia sin que reúnan los requisitos para el cargo determinado; el que los salarios de los miembros de la familia que trabajan en la empresa estén sobredimensionados; el que no exista una estrategia a largo plazo, una planeación anual y mucho menos una rendición de cuentas respecto del trabajo realizado; y el que se discutan los problemas familiares al interior de la empresa. Estos errores, entre otros, pueden llegar a limitar el crecimiento de la empresa y en ocasiones a causar  el cierre de la misma.

La solución no está en dejar pasar el tiempo y/o esconder los problemas sino en montar de manera preventiva una estructura que de manera gradual trace los límites entre las finanzas de la familia y las de la empresa, de tal modo que la empresa funcione con una administración propia, independiente y exclusiva que haga uso de los recursos de forma clara y transparente, de forma que se pueda garantizar la permanencia de la empresa en el tiempo.  A su vez,  la estructura debe permitir a la familia percibir los ingresos derivados de las utilidades de la empresa de una manera eficiente.   Es igualmente importante, tener una visión empresarial que permita reinvertir las ganancias en la empresa, para posicionarla y fortalecerla.

Para esto es necesario concientizarse en la necesidad de implementar un sistema de gobernabilidad en las empresas y de estructuración en el patrimonio de las familias propietarias, de tal manera que se estructure correctamente la sucesión en la administración por parte de miembros de la familia o de terceros, se determinen los posibles conflictos de interés que pudieren llegar a ocurrir, se profesionalice la labor de los administradores, y se estructure el patrimonio de la familia, de una manera que les de tranquilidad en cuanto al manejo del patrimonio que les genera riqueza y a la resolución de sus eventuales conflictos internos, en donde se garantice unidad y perdurabilidad por fuera de los órganos de la misma empresa.

La economía salvadoreña está compuesta por grandes conglomerados y grandes empresas, pero también por las sociedades medianas y pequeñas que fueron fundadas por un grupo de amigos y/o familiares y son éstas empresas una base importante de nuestra economía, generadora de empleo y de ingresos para los salvadoreños. Son las que deben velar por una transformación que les permita ordenarse internamente, de tal manera que generen confiabilidad no solo a sus fundadores o propietarios sino también a los demás agentes del mercado.

La transición hacia este sistema de gobernabilidad, debe hacerse de manera gradual sin afectar el funcionamiento normal de la compañía. Una vez implementado, es cuestión de voluntad y disciplina comenzar su ejecución, realizando evaluaciones periódicas y cumpliendo con los diferentes parámetros establecidos. En este sistema, los roles y responsabilidades están claramente establecidos, corresponde a la administración tomar las decisiones gerenciales correctas en busca de la generación de valor para sus propietarios, y corresponde  a la familia la adecuada administración de su patrimonio, la correcta decisión en su función de accionistas y la resolución de sus conflictos internos, todo con base en los parámetros y estructura adecuada.


N.B.: El día de hoy comienzo mi blog en el espacio cedido gentilmente por la Revista El Economista, a la cual agradezco enormemente.

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