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Creación de valor compartido: reto de familias empresarias

Estimadas familias empresarias,

Voy a compartir en este post algunas ideas acerca de la creación de valor en las empresas y la evolución que debiera experimentar este concepto, especialmente en el ámbito de la empresa familiar. Por centrar la cuestión acudamos a la definición de valor que aporta  Término la Real Academia de la Lengua (RAE). Valor significa, según sus primeras acepciones, “Satisfacer las necesidades o proporcionar bienestar o deleite.  Cualidad de las cosas, en virtud de la cual se da por poseerlas cierta suma de dinero o equivalente”. La propia RAE parece distinguir entre valores económicos y otros que se deslizan hacia conceptos más hedonistas.

Si revisamos el concepto de valor en el mundo empresarial es evidente que se pone el foco habitualmente en la creación de valor económico. Mucho se ha hablado y escrito desde la academia y la consultoría en relación a la creación de valor para el accionista. Resumiendo mucho la cuestión, conveníamos que la misión de una empresa era ganar dinero. Desde mi particular punto de vista, alguna parte, no menor, de la gran crisis sufrida por las  economías avanzadas se explica por  esa orientación economicista del rol de las empresas. Si todo vale por ganar dinero y crear valor económico para la empresas y sus directivos, cabe entender la tentación de diseñar cualquier política que nos lleva a conseguir el objetivo, a costa se lo que sea. Nos presentamos a la siguiente Junta General de Accionistas con una cuenta de resultados gloriosa, anunciamos buenos dividendos, los ejecutivos cobran sustanciosos bonos de remuneración variable y todos contentos.

Ahora bien, tras la Gran Recesión, y seguramente como consecuencia de la misma, hemos entrada en la era de la hipertransperencia La observación crítica nos invita a pensar que estos modelos “resultadistas” presentan claras deficiencias. Sin entrar en aquellas que nos pueden situar fuera del ámbito de la legalidad y/o la ética, lo cierto es que con estas pautas de comportamiento se compromete muchas veces el largo plazo, de la propia empresa, y de la sociedad en su conjunto. Parece evidente que se proponga una nueva tendencia de gobernanza de las  compañías que se aborde con una perspectiva mucho más holística. Que tenga en cuenta un vocablo tan de moda, pero tan relevante, como la sostenibilidad. La sostenibilidad invita a pensar en términos de creación de valor con perspectiva de largo plazo y contemplando tanto los requerimientos de los accionistas como los de la sociedad en su conjunto y el medio ambiente. Se trata de gestionar la rentabilidad del accionista, condición absolutamente necesaria pero no suficiente, y, además, la de todos los grupos de interés (stakeholders). Lo curioso del asunto es que hay evidencias empíricas  que demuestran que la adecuada gestión de los teóricos intangibles también genera valor económico. Un estudio de  Standard & Poors 500  muestra cómo ha evolucionado el criterio que siguen los mercados a la hora de establecer el valor de las compañías desde el último cuarto del siglo XX al momento presente. Mientras que en 1.975 sólo el 17% del valor se debía a los activos intangibles,  en 2.010 esa cifra ascendía al 80%. No es de extrañar entonces el nacimiento de instrumentos como el Dow Jones Sustainability Index, que ha seleccionado a 333 compañías seleccionadas entre un universo de 3.300 cuyo rendimiento en el largo plazo ha sido superior a las empresas que no forman parte de este selecto grupo Por tanto la óptica de la múltiple cuenta de resultados que remunera a todos los stakeholders acaba convirtiéndose en círculo virtuoso que ayuda a la deseada sostenibilidad económica.

Estas cuestiones son particularmente relevantes en el entorno de la empresa familiar, que ha hecho bandera de la continuidad transgeneracional y la visión de largo plazo. Esos objetivos pasan hoy porque las familias empresarias asuman el concepto de creación de valor compartido.

No estamos promoviendo un discurso naif sino un modelo de gestión y gobierno responsable que debe promover la creación de valor compartido. Descuidar el talento es sentar las bases para comprometer la creación de valor económico. Lo mismo que ocurre con la falta de trasparencia ante clientes, con posiciones de abuso ante los proveedores, con la desatención a los problemas que afectan al conjunto de la sociedad, con las acciones que comprometen la sostenibilidad medioambiental, con torpes gestiones ante los reguladores o con prácticas poco éticas y/o delictivas. De otra forma, construir relaciones de parteneariado con tu entorno es crear unas bases sólidas para que los proyectos empresariales cuajen, en primera instancia, y acaben creciendo. Especial énfasis quiero poner en este post en las relaciones entre propiedad y empleados. En momentos como los actuales en que la competitividad es factor tan relevante la puesta en marcha de políticas inteligentes entre la propiedad de las compañías y sus trabajadores es de capital importancia.

Cuando me he referido tantas veces a que muchas empresas familiares son espejo donde mirarse es porque han atendido muy bien estas demandas, si bien intuitivamente. Han cuidado a su gente, las relaciones con el entorno local donde están establecidos, su trato con proveedores y clientes. Quizás no han “empaquetado” estas políticas en memorias de sostenibilidad o de creación de valor compartido como hacen muchas grandes corporaciones siguiendo los lineamientos de entes internacionales especializados en estas cuestiones tales como Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) o International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC). Cuestión que, por cierto, debieran hacer pues no olvidemos que, como repetía John D. Rockefeller, “reputación es hacer las cosas bien y que se sepa”.

Para el futuro de nuestra sociedad es relevante que esta nueva forma de entender el gobierno y la gestión de las empresas familiares vaya consolidándose. A su vez, la sociedad nos demuestra con sus comportamientos mayor sensibilidad a estas cuestiones. Verlo con ojos de oportunidad es lo propio de la gente emprendedora de calidad.

Hasta pronto. No dejes de esforzarte por ser muy feliz que, al final del día, es lo más importante para ti y los que te rodean

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