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BIG DATA Y COMERCIO: DIME CÓMO TE CONECTAS Y TE DIRÉ QUÉ COMPRAS

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La película Moneyball, protagonizada por Brad Pitt, popularizó el interés por el Big Data. La historia basada en hechos reales cuenta cómo el análisis de grandes bases de datos permitió a un equipo de baseball pasar de los últimos puestos de la liga a los primeros, simplemente analizando estadísticas sobre el rendimiento óptimo de cada uno de sus jugadores, y armando una estrategia para cada partido sobre la base de esos resultados.

¿Se puede trasladar esta experiencia con big data a la economía y al comercio? Claro que sí, y de hecho ya se está haciendo.

En el mundo hay 18 mil millones de dispositivos con posibilidad de conexión a internet, casi tres veces la cantidad de personas. Estos aparatos generan una enorme cantidad de datos que las grandes compañías utilizan casi en forma diaria, por ejemplo, para saber los mejores horarios para realizar publicidades o promociones, e incluso para conocer los gustos de potenciales clientes.

Las técnicas de Big data ayudan a manejar un enorme volumen de información de gran variedad, tanto del tipo de datos (palabras utilizadas, ubicación y movilidad, información geológica y climática, inventarios, transacciones, registros bancarios) como de las fuentes que los originan (teléfonos móviles, audio, video, sistemas de posicionamiento satelital, sensores digitales en equipos domésticos o industriales, instrumentos climáticos, buscadores de internet, transacciones financieras, etc.).

Banner web LN 8Cuando estos dispositivos se conectan entre sí e interactúan con el entorno, tenemos una nueva dimensión: internet de las cosas, que multiplica exponencialmente los datos disponibles. Además, el análisis de esa cantidad de información requiere de velocidad de respuesta, sobre todo si se pretende actuar en tiempo real, una cuestión clave en ocasiones de catástrofes ambientales o la propagación de enfermedades contagiosas.

iContainers es un acertado ejemplo en la gestión rápida de grandes volúmenes de datos. En este caso, la plataforma web reúne información de transporte marítimo. En ella, importadores y exportadores comparan tarifas en tiempo real y gestionan de principio a fin sus envíos marítimos, de forma ágil y sencilla, sin necesidad de esperar días o semanas por una cotización.

Big Data, internet de las cosas y el análisis predictivo resultan esenciales en distintas áreas específicas del comercio.

Por ejemplo, para la logística de las empresas, para reducir costos de transporte y seguridad, identificar la demanda potencial con mayor precisión o mejorar los tiempos de los lanzamientos de nuevos productos. De esta manera las empresas podrán ganar competitividad y reducir sus costos operativos.

Específicamente, pueden identificarse cuatro tipos de impacto de este desarrollo tecnológico: aumento de la productividad y la eficiencia, reducción de costos, crecimiento de los servicios incorporados en los bienes y ampliación del comercio electrónico.

Desde el punto de vista regulatorio, los principales desafíos de esta transición hacia objetos conectados, se vincularán con los derechos de propiedad intelectual, la protección de datos y privacidad, la ciberseguridad y las normas técnicas, entre otros. [1]

El evento central del Instituto para la Integración de América Latina (INTAL) abordará este tema en el panel “Big Data para una BIG Integración”, donde expertos mundiales compartirán los últimos avances en estos temas.

¿Podrá el Big Data contribuir al desarrollo exportador de los países de la región? ¿Qué necesitamos para avanzar en una inteligencia comercial que nos ayude a elegir mejor a nuestros socios? En este sentido, América Latina tiene un desafío por delante, debiendo consolidar sus condiciones para lograr un máximo aprovechamiento de las nuevas tecnologías. Esto implica mejoras en materia de infraestructura (informática y telecomunicaciones), educación y capacitación del capital humano, promoción de la innovación y difusión del conocimiento, asumiendo un rol activo en las negociaciones comerciales multilaterales.

La información ya se encuentra allí, a la espera de que decidamos analizarla y la usemos en nuestras estrategias comerciales. Quienes lo hagan de seguro tomarán ventaja.

[1] Gayá, Romina. 2015. El sistema multilateral de comercio y las nuevas tecnologías. Integración y Comercio 19, no. 39: p. 64-77.


Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el blog Más allá de las fronteras del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.
Gracias por su interés en nuestros contenidos. Si tienen alguna consulta, o les interesa ampliar estas columnas con alguna entrevista, quedo atenta para apoyarles. Por favor escriba a: indiram@iadb.org o llame al:202-623-3287.

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