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La Educación de calidad es posible

5 claves para mejorar la educación post-secundaria América Latina y el Caribe: aprendiendo de los Community Colleges

image006En América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), un porcentaje muy alto de los jóvenes de la región no cuentan con los conocimientos y habilidades básicas en matemáticas (los 8 países de la región que participaron en PISA 2012 se ubican entre los 14 de peor desempeño) y los resultados del mercado laboral para los jóvenes tampoco no son prometedores. De acuerdo con estimaciones de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) en 2005, 57 de los 106 millones de jóvenes en la región estaban desempleados o empleados en trabajos inadecuados, no asistían a la escuela, o no estaban interesados en buscar trabajo. ¿Podrían algunas características del sistema de los Community Colleges (CC) en Estados Unidos de América (EE.UU). ayudar a los países de ALC a enfrentar estos retos?

“Hoy en día, los Community Colleges son el segmento más grande y de más rápido crecimiento de la educación superior en Estados Unidos. Estas escuelas se inscriben 43 por ciento de todos los estudiantes universitarios, y son cada vez más reconocidos por su papel fundamental en la preparación de la fuerza laboral estadounidense del futuro.”

Jill Biden, el discurso de apertura de la Cumbre de la Casa Blanca de Universidades de la Comunidad en 2010.

Esta fue la pregunta que trataron de responder los principales actores de CC en Estados Unidos junto con responsables políticos de los sistemas educativos y representantes del sector empresarial en ALC, en un evento celebrado los días 6 y 7 Noviembre del 2013 llamado “Community Colleges: un buen modelo para América Latina y el Caribe (ALC)?”. El evento fue organizado por la División de Educación del BID con el apoyo del Departamento de Educación de los Estados Unidos de América. A partir del intercambio de experiencias, se identificaron 5 aspectos clave de los CC que, adaptados al contexto de ALC, pueden contribuir a mejorar la cobertura y la pertinencia de la educación post-secundaria de la región para facilitar la transición de la escuela al trabajo de los jóvenes en nuestra región.image007

1) Ampliar el acceso e integrar estudiantes con una amplia gama de habilidades

Los CC cumplen un rol social y atienden a una comunidad de estudiantes en desventaja gracias a que cuentan con fuentes de financiamiento variadas(público y privado) que permiten la inserción de sectores marginados en los circuitos educativos. Además, dedican importantes recursos a compensar las desigualdades en términos de capacidad o la preparación para la universidad. Por ejemplo, el Programa de Aprendizaje Acelerado desarrollado por el CC of Baltimore County, permite a los estudiantes en remediación llevar los cursos a crédito iniciales de manera simultánea con la tutoría para hacer frente a sus debilidades académicas. Las instituciones en la región por lo general no invierten de manera significativa en herramientas que permitan a los estudiantes nivelar sus habilidades.

2) Asegurar la transferibilidad

Los CC velan por la compatibilidad de los certificados terciarios y la transferencia de créditos académicos con las universidades, ofreciendo a los estudiantes distintas trayectorias adaptadas a sus objetivos y capacidades. La articulación horizontal entre los distintos tipos de instituciones del sistema educativo en EE.UU. permite la homologación de credenciales y la continuidad en el aprendizaje formal. En los países de ALC, por lo general, los estudios terciarios tienden a verse como un fin en sí mismo y las equivalencias suelen ser escasas.

3) Mejorar la calidad de la educación secundaria

El libro del BID Desconectados muestra que una mayoría de jóvenes latinoamericanos abandonan el sistema educativo poco preparados para tener éxito en las universidades tradicionales y sin los conocimientos necesarios para tener éxito en el mercado de trabajo. Los CC participantes, en particularMontgomery College, mantienen canales de retroalimentación con las instituciones de educación secundaria sobre los conocimientos generales que estas deben reforzar. Consideran que evitar que los alumnos egresen con una mala base, a través de un diálogo abierto con las escuelas, refuerza su papel central en un proceso continuo desde la secundaria, a la universidad y luego al mundo de trabajo.

4) Alianzas estratégicas con el sector privado y la comunidad.

La calidad de los CC a la hora de coordinar la compleja articulación con el sector laboral-productivo fue un denominador común. Existe un importante trabajo en equipo con una clara interdependencia entre ambas partes, una de las claves para que el modelo sea viable y sustentable. En ese sentido, el CC de La Guardia y el de Houston recomendaron crear alianzas locales e invitar representantes de la comunidad y del sector empresarial a formar parte del consejo consultivo de la institución a la hora de identificar necesidades y objetivos a alcanzar.

La presentación de Sergio Urzúa, Profesor de la Universidad de Maryland, demostró que en ALC el acceso a la educación no se ha traducido en mejoras de la productividad de los trabajadores debido, en gran parte, a la falta de articulación de los contenidos de los programas con las necesidades reales del mercado de trabajo. Es crucial desarrollar un marco regulatorio (calidad, certificación, normativas y flexibilidad curricular) que incentive la articulación eficiente y una comunicación fluida y estratégica entre los sectores educativos y laborales. Nuestra región debe construir confianza y promover alianzas estratégicas centradas en un modelo de competencias a adquirir y no en contenidos a cubrir.

5) Cambio cultural y reputación

En EE.UU existe una mayor valoración de los certificados no universitarios en el mundo laboral porque existe mayor transparencia y credibilidad. En los países de ALC los estudios técnicos aún son un “plan B” o “premio consuelo” para los estudiantes que no logran acceder al nivel universitario. Para ampliar la oferta educativa post-secundaria, se debe fomentar el prestigio de la formación técnica superior y favorecer un cambio cultural que reponga la reputación de los egresados técnicos. Para efectuar este cambio de manera paulatina, los participantes sugirieron que las mismas casas de estudios que proveen títulos universitarios sean las que ofrezcan certificaciones terciarias. Además, plantearon trabajar a nivel de la regulación laboral y valoración salarial de los egresados de ambos tipos de instituciones y ofrecer la opción de continuidad hacia la universidad en las instituciones no universitarias.

El propósito de estudiar el modelo de CC no es dictar lecciones ni reproducir los detalles del sistema. Nuestra finalidad es aprender de experiencias exitosas en otras partes del mundo y así, promover reformas que conduzcan a proporcionar un acceso más amplio a una educación de calidad que permita a más jóvenes latinoamericanos acceder puestos de trabajo . ¿Cuál (o cuáles) de estos cinco aspectos clave de los CC en EE.UU se puede aplicar a ALC? ¿Qué puede aportar el modelo de CC en tu país?

¡No te pierdas nuestro próximo blog post sobre una visita guiada al CC de Montogomery!

Esta columna fue publicada originalmente en el Blog La Educación de calidad si es posible del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

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