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Gestión de proyectos: el interesado «olvidado»

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Desde mi punto de vista y con base en la experiencia de varios años gestionando proyectos, una de las disciplinas que tiene mayor impacto e influencia en el logro de los objetivos planteados dentro en un proyecto es la gestión de los interesados (stakeholders). Teniendo claro que los stakeholders son todas aquellas personas, instituciones u organizaciones que se ven afectados por el proyecto y/o que pueden influenciar en los resultados del mismo, siendo estas afectaciones e influencias positivas o negativas, es primordial la identificación de los mismos para la definición clara de la estrategia a seguir y aumentar así la posibilidad de llegar a feliz término.

Cuando hablamos de la identificación de interesados, sobre todo para proyectos internos, fácilmente podemos listar los siguientes: El patrocinador del proyecto (owner), los miembros del equipo del Director de Proyectos (Project Managers), los líderes de las áreas de negocio, instituciones legales y fiscales, áreas operativas, Recursos Humanos, entre otras. El reto aquí es no dejar a nadie por fuera ya que justamente esto es lo que incrementa significativamente la amenaza de un riesgo no gestionado o una oportunidad no aprovechada. La clasificación básica de los interesados parte del nivel de influencia y su capacidad de impacto dentro del proyecto y es aquí donde muchas veces descuidamos a uno de los interesados principales, nosotros mismos.

Como Directores de Proyectos debemos analizar constantemente cuál es nuestra posición frente al resto de interesados, cómo nuestras expectativas afectan nuestra relación con ellos y el liderazgo que estamos proyectando; que tan abiertos estamos a escuchar las sugerencias que nos son planteadas y por consiguiente cómo estamos gestionando las posturas que parecen contrarias a los objetivos del proyecto, en la mayoría de los casos es fácil dimensionar equivocadamente un problema de comunicación o una mala lectura de expectativas cómo un rechazo al proyecto en su totalidad, situaciones que requieren estrategias diferentes. “Bajar las defensas” y dejar de lado el ego, nos permitirá identificar pequeñas concesiones que con la autorización del Owner podemos otorgar, permitiendo en muchos casos convertir a un interesado desde un estado de renuencia a liderazgo activo dentro del proyecto. Para esto es importante la escucha efectiva y la lectura adecuada de las motivaciones de cada interesado.

Según la expresado por el Project Management Institute (PMI) la gestión de los interesados y por ende la influencia que el Director de Proyectos puede ejercer sobre el impacto (positivo/negativo) de los mismos es determinante en todas las etapas del proyecto:

  • Iniciación: Enfocado en la identificación de cada uno de los interesados y su respectiva clasificación
  • Planeación: Definiendo la estrategia a seguir con cada uno e incorporándolo en el plan general del proyecto a través del plan de gestión de interesados.
  • Ejecución: Gestionando adecuadamente el compromiso de los interesados con los objetivos del proyecto.
  • Monitoreo y Control: Supervisando las oportunidades y riesgos identificados inicialmente relacionados, así como cualquier desviación que se presente a lo largo del proyecto  para poder actuar proactivamente.
  • Cierre: Velando por el cierre transparente del proyecto y según los parámetros establecidos, fomentando la confianza y manejo ético en futuras iniciativas.

Como Directores de Proyectos no podemos descartar a ningún interesado, ni sus requerimientos, expectativas, ideas, planteamientos o sugerencias simplemente por la percepción qué de ellos tengamos, juicios de terceros o intereses personales, el código de ética nos lleva a valorar objetivamente la participación de los mismos, gestionando la relación con ellos con un enfoque profesional y en aras de lograr los mejores resultados para el proyecto. Analicemos cómo estamos gestionando a los interesados de los proyectos que tenemos a cargo y si nuestra participación está abonando o no a aumentar la credibilidad en la gestión de proyectos a través de la vivencia y promulgación de los valores de responsabilidad, respeto, equidad y honestidad que nuestro código de ética nos dicta.

Arturo Archila, PMP®
Miembro del Capítulo de El Salvador del Project Management Institute (PMI).

Referencias:
Project Management Institute, I. (2013). Guía de los Fundamentos para la Dirección de Proyectos (guía del PMBOK 5 ed). Newtown Square, Pensilvania, Estados Unidos: Project Management Institute, Inc.
Project Management Institute, I. (2006). Código de Ética y Conducta Profesional.

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