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Energías renovables: la luz de la política fiscal para iluminar el desarrollo

La pobreza y el cambio climático son dos de los principales desafíos que se enfrentan a nivel mundial. Uno de los elementos claves para superar estos desafíos y mejorar las condiciones de vida de las personas es la transformación de los sistemas energéticos, pasando de un sistema basado en combustibles fósiles, a uno basado en energías renovables.

Actualmente, alrededor del mundo 1 de cada 5 personas no tiene acceso a la energía; y aquellas que cuentan con acceso, dependen de sistemas energéticos basados en combustibles fósiles, que incrementan las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, intensifican el cambio climático, aumentan la vulnerabilidad y afectan a quienes dependen directamente de los sistemas naturales para sobrevivir.

Un reciente estudio publicado por Icefi e Hivos, analiza la relación de la política fiscal y las energías renovables para los casos de Guatemala y El Salvador. Los hallazgos muestran que entre 2007 y 2014 el Estado salvadoreño destinó USD 3,718 millones en gasto público en energía (GPE), lo que equivale cerca de USD 464.8 millones anuales, 2% del PIB; por su parte el Estado guatemalteco gastó USD 2,886.1 millones, en el mismo período, cerca de USD 360.8 millones al año, 0.7% del PIB. En términos del presupuesto, para el período, el GPE representó el 6.3% del gasto público total de El Salvador y el 4.1% para Guatemala.

En ambos casos, los subsidios constituyen el principal destino. En El Salvador, los subsidios al transporte, gas propano y electricidad, han representado el 58.1% del GPE; mientras que en Guatemala el 45%, formado por el subsidio al transporte y la electricidad. Es decir, que indirectamente, el Estado, por medio de estas erogaciones ha estado subsidiando el uso de fuentes no renovables de energía –la mayor parte de la generación de electricidad y el transporte de ambos países, dependen de combustibles fósiles—; además, tanto en Guatemala como en El Salvador, los subsidios se encuentran mal focalizados y en su mayoría son recibidos por personas que no se encuentran en situación de pobreza.

En los dos países analizados, las inversiones que los Estados realizan directamente en energías renovables son mínimas. Las inversiones específicas en este tipo de energías solo representan un 5.1% del total del GPE en Guatemala y 11.9% en El Salvador.

Es evidente que para tener resultados diferentes, Guatemala y El Salvador, deben modificar su política fiscal de tal manera que esta se convierta en una herramienta que promueva la transición hacia una matriz energética basada en fuentes renovables. Una de la formas para empujar esta transición es la utilización de impuestos sobre las energías contaminantes, lo que desincentivaría su utilización; lograría internalizar los costos ambientales y sociales de su uso; y, permitiría recaudar recursos que podrían ser utilizados para financiar mayores inversiones públicas en energías renovables, algo necesario, tomando en cuenta la preocupante situación fiscal de los dos países.

Adicionalmente, es vital la evaluación de los sistemas de subsidios y el otorgamiento de privilegios fiscales, de tal forma que los escasos recursos de los Estados, tengan un destino congruente con objetivos de desarrollo.

Otra ventana de oportunidad es evaluar la creación o el fortalecimiento de empresas públicas energéticas, y superar así, la creencia de que un mercado energético controlado por la iniciativa privada será eficiente para garantizar el acceso universal y el uso de fuentes renovables; a la fecha esto solo ha conducido a tener matrices energéticas no renovables y a que 1.5 millones de guatemaltecos y 310 mil salvadoreños sigan sin acceso a energía eléctrica.

Queda claro que si no se cambia el rol del Estado en el sector energético, difícilmente en los próximos 15 años, Guatemala y El Salvador podrán experimentar avances significativos en esta materia. Y los compromisos asumidos con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, quedarán únicamente en buenas intenciones.

185 Replies to “Energías renovables: la luz de la política fiscal para iluminar el desarrollo

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