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El camino de Centroamérica después de la COP21

COP21Los representantes de las 195 naciones reunidas en Francia para la Conferencia Sobre el Cambio Climático (COP21), han reconocido que este es un problema de toda la humanidad y que «al adoptar medidas para hacerle frente, las Partes (los Estados) deberían respetar, promover y tener en cuenta sus respectivas obligaciones relativas a los derechos humanos, el derecho a la salud, los derechos de los pueblos indígenas, las comunidades locales, los migrantes, los niños, las personas con discapacidad y las personas en situaciones vulnerables y el derecho al desarrollo, así como la igualdad de género, el empoderamiento de la mujer y la equidad intergeneracional».

Del Acuerdo de París destacan tres metas importantes. Primero, mantener el aumento de la temperatura media del planeta muy por debajo de dos grados centígrados, y continuar los esfuerzos para limitar ese aumento a 1.5 grados centígrados con respecto a los niveles preindustriales, con lo cual se reducirá de manera significativa los riesgos y efectos del cambio climático.

En segundo término, el Acuerdo persigue aumentar la capacidad de promover la adaptación a los efectos adversos del cambio climático y un desarrollo con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, de tal forma que, entre otros esfuerzos, no se comprometa la producción de alimentos. Finalmente, el tercer objetivo apunta a elevar los flujos financieros a un nivel que permita el desarrollo resiliente al clima y con bajas emisiones de efecto invernadero.

Sobre el objetivo de financiación, se ha hecho hincapié en que los países desarrollados deberían seguir encabezando los esfuerzos, buscando un equilibrio entre el financiamiento para la adaptación y la mitigación, teniendo en cuenta las estrategias, prioridades y necesidades de los países en desarrollo, en especial de aquellos particularmente vulnerables a los efectos del cambio climático. En ese sentido, se ha decidido que el Acuerdo establezca un nuevo objetivo colectivo de financiación que será como mínimo de USD100 millardos anuales, teniendo en cuenta las necesidades y prioridades de los países en desarrollo. A la par de los recursos se establece una iniciativa para el fomento de la capacidad de transparencia, con el fin de mejorar la institucionalidad que permita, a los Estados que reciban recursos, cumplir oportunamente con los requisitos reforzados en materia de transparencia.

Este nuevo contexto de abordaje del cambio climático es una oportunidad para que Centroamérica avance en sus esfuerzos de mitigación y adaptación. El cambio climático, en los últimos doce años, han significado para la región más de 12,000 muertes y pérdidas materiales por aproximadamente USD41.3 millardos. En ese sentido, los ciudadanos centroamericanos conscientes de los efectos del cambio climático deben rediseñar su modelo económico y social en tres ámbitos: crecimiento económico sostenible, la construcción de la equidad y la efectividad del Estado.

De manera muy resumida, los retos en la primera esfera están relacionados con un apoyo decidido al desarrollo rural para aumentar la protección social de sus habitantes (hoy los más vulnerabilizados), al tiempo en que se garantiza la producción agropecuaria para la soberanía alimentaria; nuevas normas para la construcción de infraestructura pública y privada, que garantice la adaptación al cambio climático. En lo productivo, el fomento en la utilización y producción de las energías renovables, cambios y transformación en las formas de producción, así como la eliminación de productos contaminantes. Estos cambios, delineados dentro de una estrategia de desarrollo inclusivo, pueden constituirse en una oportunidad para aumentar significativamente el empleo.

En la construcción de la equidad, las políticas públicas deben considerar de manera transversal los efectos adversos que el cambio climático ha tenido sobre los ciudadanos, muy especialmente, en la provisión de servicios educativos y de salud debido a la destrucción de infraestructura. Asimismo, se debe lograr la puesta en marcha de un sistema de protección social y regulación de infraestructura que elimine los riesgos relacionados con el cambio climático que han causado hambre y pérdidas de viviendas y producción para autoconsumo. Se suma a la construcción de la igualdad, la creación de instrumentos públicos que aseguren a los ciudadanos y productores, con especial énfasis en los más vulnerables, la compensación ante pérdidas productivas y de sus pequeños patrimonios.

Finalmente, en cuanto a la efectividad del Estado, los retos del cambio climático para la administración pública tienen relación tanto con una mejor regulación en la planificación territorial, social y productiva, como en una ejecución más efectiva (con mayor incidencia sobre el bienestar social) y transparente de los recursos públicos. A nivel regional, los Estados centroamericanos deben diseñar instrumentos regionales que aseguren su infraestructura pública frente al cambio climático.

A todo lo anterior se suma la necesidad de que los gobiernos puedan movilizar mayores recursos domésticos, y con un sesgo más progresivo, para cumplir con su función. La cooperación internacional puede ayudar a Centroamérica, pero tal y como lo revelan los recién estrenados Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, la responsabilidad nacional con el financiamiento del desarrollo es la piedra angular en este nuevo modelo mundial de civilización. La falta de consenso social y la poca conciencia de las élites económicas, hacen que este sea el mayor reto de Centroamérica para poder convertirse en una región con menos riesgos climáticos y mayores posibilidades de desarrollo y democracia.

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