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Superintendencia de Competencia
Competencia

Objeto de las multas a los carteles

Por Blanca Geraldina Leiva Montoya

Abogada de la Superintendencia de Competencia

 

El Superintendente de Industria y Comercio de Colombia, el 30 de diciembre de 2015, confirmó la sanción para algunas empresas y directivos del sector azucarero por cartelización empresarial, al encontrar que incurrieron, durante varios años, en una conducta concertada, continuada y coordinada orientada a obstruir importaciones de azúcar a Colombia procedente de países tales como Bolivia, Guatemala, El Salvador y Costa Rica. Las sanciones totalizaron la suma aproximada de US$111.50 millones y, según lo informó dicha autoridad[1], fueron tasadas garantizando su proporcionalidad frente a la gravedad de la conducta y la capacidad de pago.

Sin embargo, en ese caso, surgieron críticas que calificaron dichas multas como “confiscatorias”, “le hacen grave daño a la industria […]”, “ascienden a todas las utilidades del 2014 de los ingenios, más las del 2013 y la mitad de las obtenidas en 2012”, así como que representarían “una pena de muerte que se le impone al sector azucarero nacional”[2].

Este es solo un ejemplo de las críticas que se suscitan respecto de sanciones establecidas por acuerdos colusorios. En El Salvador la autoridad de competencia también enfrenta resistencia al cumplimiento de las multas impuestas por acuerdos colusorios, las cuales, casi en su totalidad, han sido impugnadas en sede judicial. Por ejemplo, en el 2015 tres aseguradoras fueron sancionadas por manipular las ofertas presentadas en las licitaciones convocadas por las Administradoras de Fondos de Pensiones, durante 2008-2012, para contratar el seguro de invalidez y sobrevivencia. Las  aseguradoras impugnaron la decisión en la Sala de lo Contencioso Administrativo, la cual suspendió cautelarmente las multas impuestas –US$1,469,973.09, US$1,365,364.56 y US$ 590,495.58, basadas en el 1.2% de las ventas totales de cada infractora-, aunque la ley habilitaba sancionar hasta por el 6% de esas ventas.

La referida Sala consideró que “de no suspenderse los efectos de la actuación contra la que se reclama, el administrado deberá pagar la multa atribuida lo que conllevaría a un desequilibrio financiero en la empresa por cuanto el porcentaje de la multa refleja una parte sustancial del acervo financiero de la misma”[3]. En el caso de otra de las aseguradoras, el tribunal aceptó suspender la ejecución del pago de la multa pues el monto “es disímil a las utilidades obtenidas” y si la empresa no pagaba la multa “se estaría enfrentando a un inminente riesgo de ser embargada la empresa[…]”[4].

Como vemos, no solo en Colombia o en El Salvador, la intensidad de las multas es un tema incomprendido, frente a lo que cabe preguntarse acerca de la legitimidad de los señalamientos en contra de los montos elegidos por las autoridades de competencia para sancionar…para disuadir. La respuesta obliga a meditar la finalidad de las multas en el Derecho de Competencia. A diferencia de otros ámbitos de la potestad sancionatoria de la Administración Pública, la punición económica de un cártel no sólo lleva aparejada la tradicional finalidad retributiva (castigo), sino que además tiene el reto de conjugar con esta la finalidad de restitución (corregir el daño causado) y disuasión (prevención). Por ello, si busca castigar, la multa debería ser en función de la gravedad de la conducta; si busca restituir, la  multa dependerá del daño causado; y, si busca disuadir, la multa debería ser mayor que las ganancias generadas por la conducta. Estas finalidades de la multa en Derecho de Competencia han sido reconocidas y validadas en revisión judicial de casos como el cartel de Telefónicas sancionado por la Superintendencia de Competencia en El Salvador[5]

Así, para potenciar la función disuasiva de las sanciones, estas deberán configurarse en la norma en función de las ganancias que genera un cartel para sus miembros y del daño a los consumidores; tarea nada fácil pero ineludible para el legislador. Aquí resulta útil revisar estudios teóricos y prácticos acerca del incremento de precios que esas conductas suponen en beneficio de los infractores y en perjuicio de los consumidores. Por ejemplo, uno de los reportes elaborados por la OCDE[6] presenta datos interesantes sobre una selección de cárteles a partir de los cuales se identificaba que el incremento medio de los precios como consecuencia de la conducta había sido entre el 15 % y el 20 %, pudiendo llegar a más del 50 % en ciertos casos.  Esto no puede más que llevarnos a compartir una de las conclusiones del reporte: Muchos expertos sostienen el criterio de que el importe bruto de las sanciones financieras debe ser mayor que la ganancia para el cártel, tomando en cuenta que no todos los cárteles son descubiertos y castigados.

Por ello, la generalidad de leyes de competencia en el mundo, para determinar las sanciones máximas, se basan en las ventas totales para el cálculo de la multa, siendo el 10% un porcentaje muy común en el derecho comparado[7]. Lógicamente, la lucha contra los carteles se concreta, entre otras formas, en el establecimiento de multas que alcanzan cifras más fuertes que las ganancias derivadas para las empresas coludidas. En Colombia, las multas corporativas por colusión pueden alcanzar hasta US$24 millones[8]. En el caso de los ingenios sancionados, las multas no alcanzaron su tope legal; además, según el comunicado oficial de su autoridad de competencia, esas multas “no superan el siete por ciento (7%) de sus ingresos operaciones anuales ni el siete por ciento (7%) de su patrimonio”[9], muy por debajo de los estándares para multas en función de ventas (10%-20%). En El Salvador, el porcentaje techo de multa en función de ventas totales está por debajo del legislado en la región latinoamericana, y ni aún así ha sido aplicado en su nivel medio siquiera, pero los argumentos de impugnación judicial siguen siendo violación a proporcionalidad y capacidad económica.

Los daños que generan al consumidor las colusiones en un mercado obligan a que la proporción de su sanción económica no se mida únicamente en función de la capacidad económica de la empresa, sino que la multa supere las ganancias derivadas de la conducta, en tanto estas representan una contra cara del daño al consumidor. La clave de una sanción disuasiva se sustenta en que las ganancias de coludir deben ser menores al castigo asignado.

La palabra “multa” no es agradable para las empresas, sobre todo cuando consideran que estos castigos son “confiscatorios”. Sin embargo, las prácticas colusorias pueden generar precios “confiscatorios” para los consumidores, por períodos significativamente prolongados, y generar a las empresas ganancias ilícitas que deben ser tomadas en cuenta para la cuantificación de la sanción.

De tal manera, así como sean las multas por colusión, así será su eficacia disuasiva. Esta es una tarea para los legisladores –que deben diseñar pisos y techos de multas suficientemente disuasivos– y para las autoridades de competencia –que deben analizar caso a caso la multa aplicable, procurando la proporcionalidad de la multa en función de la finalidad disuasiva y la capacidad económica de las empresas–.

 

  • Los comentarios en este artículo expresan la opinión de la autora-

 

*Abogada y Notaria de la República de El Salvador. Actualmente labora en la Intendencia de Investigaciones de la Superintendencia de Competencia de El Salvador, y anteriormente se desempeñó como asesora jurídica del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y como colaboradora de la Sala de lo Constitucional.

 

 

[1] Esta noticia puede consultarse en el sitio web de la autoridad de competencia colombiana, en el enlace http://www.sic.gov.co/noticias/superindustria-ratifica-sanciones-a-empresas-y-directivos-del-sector-azucarero-por-cartelizacion-empresarial

[2] Citas tomadas de noticia publicada en el medio de comunicación virtual Diario.com.co, que puede consultarse en el link http://www.elpais.com.co/elpais/economia/noticias/pasara-con-industria-azucarera-ante-millonaria-sancion-sic; otros medios de comunicación virtual y televisivos citaron algunas declaraciones en el mismo sentido, por ejemplo: http://www.publimetro.co/cali/multas-impuestas-por-la-sic-son-una-pena-de-muerte-para-el-sector-azucareros/lmkojh!ZX2lhTTnHRrzU/;http://noticias.caracoltv.com/colombia/resolucion-contra-industria-azucarera-es-una-pena-de-muerte-abogado-del-gremio; http://lavozdelrioarauca.com/2015/10/es-una-pena-de-muerte-para-la-industria-defensa-sobre-multa-contra-azucareros/; http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/economia/defensa-de-azucareros-dice-sancion-cartelizacion-excesi-articulo-591446; http://www.bluradio.com/112493/esto-es-una-pena-de-muerte-la-industria-del-azucar-nestor-humberto-martinez; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4J6TI-Zy3Y

[3]  Este extracto corresponde a la resolución que admite la demanda de una de las aseguradoras contra la resolución sancionadora de la Superintendencia de Competencia de El Salvador. Puede consultarse la resolución judicial en el enlace https://issuu.com/scompetencia/docs/auto_solicitando_1_informe

[4]  Ver enlace  https://issuu.com/scompetencia/docs/auto_solicitando_

[5] Sentencia emitida el 6/7/2016 por la Sala de lo Contencioso Administrativo en el proceso 60-2012, en la cual se analizaron y confirmaron los criterios de capacidad económica y proporcionalidad de la multa establecidos por la Superintendencia de Competencia.

[6] La OCDE publicó en 2002 el documento titulado “REPORT ON THE NATURE AND IMPACT OF HARD CORE CARTELS AND SANCTIONS AGAINST CARTELS UNDER NATIONAL COMPETITION LAW“, el cual puede descargarse accediendo al enlace http://www.oecd.org/competition/cartels/2081831.pdf

[7] La Comisión Europea impone multas de hasta un 10% de la facturación total de la empresa infractora. Estados Unidos contempla la posibilidad de multar en función del doble de la pérdida o ganancia financiera bruta que se haya generado de la violación, como alternativa a la multa de hasta US$100 millones. También en Latinoamérica, algunos países sancionan con parámetros de ventas: El Salvador (hasta un 6% de las ventas anuales obtenidas por el infractor), Costa Rica (10% de las ventas anuales obtenidas por el infractor), Nicaragua (10% de las ventas netas anuales), México (10% de los ingresos del Agente Económico), Perú (máximos de 8%, 10% y 12% de las ventas o ingresos brutos percibidos por el infractor, o su grupo económico, relativos a todas sus actividades económicas), Ecuador (hasta el 12% del volumen de negocios total de la empresa u operador económico infractor), Paraguay (hasta el equivalente al 150% de los lucros obtenidos con la práctica infractora o hasta el 20% de la facturación bruta de los productos objeto de la práctica en el mercado relevante afectado en los últimos 12 meses), Brasil (hasta el 20% de las ventas brutas de la empresa, grupo o conglomerado).

[8]  La sanción económica puede alcanzar la suma de 100.000 salarios mínimos mensuales vigentes o, si resulta ser mayor, hasta por el 150 % de la utilidad derivada de la conducta por parte del infractor.

[9]  Ver enlace http://www.sic.gov.co/noticias/por-cartelizacion-empresarial-para-obstruir-importaciones-superindustria-sanciona-a-ASOCANA-ya-14-empresas-del-sector-azucarero

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