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Competencia

La competencia y las compras públicas

Cuando hablamos de las compras públicas[1], nos referimos a la adquisición y contratación de obras, bienes y servicios por parte de la administración pública, las cuales garantizan la operatividad y ayudan al cumplimiento de los fines del sector público. En este sentido, como es sabido, en general los gobiernos destinan gran proporción de sus recursos en estos conceptos, los cuales a su vez suelen representar un porcentaje significativo del producto interno bruto (PIB) de las economías.

Ahora bien, respecto de lo anterior, puede surgirnos una interrogante sobre ¿Cómo podemos procurar que se esté obteniendo el mejor valor por los recursos utilizados y que, los agentes económicos que buscan tomar las licitaciones y contrataciones de la administración pública no estén, en cierto modo, aprovechándose de las condiciones de mercado y minando los recursos públicos?

Para aproximarnos al análisis de esta temática, cabría primeramente mencionar, que uno de los principios que debe regir a las contrataciones públicas es el de la competencia, que pretende en un primer plano, propiciar la participación del mayor número de competidores que se adecúen a las necesidades y exigencias específicas, y que procura además, el otorgamiento de igualdad de condiciones y oportunidades a lo largo de tales procedimientos. En este sentido, observamos que como una parte muy importante para la adecuada gestión de las compras públicas se encuentran las normas de contratación pública, las cuales deben procurar la eficiencia asignativa de los recursos, sin establecer obstáculos adicionales, ni promover la discrecionalidad en la selección, y que deben tener como principio rector a la competencia para procurar los mejores resultados.

Para el caso en concreto de El Salvador, podemos mencionar que la normativa aplicable para la realización de las compras públicas es la Ley de Adquisiciones y Contrataciones de la Administración Pública (LACAP), la cual establece diversas formas de contratación, cuya aplicación depende del monto de la obra, del bien o servicio a contratar, o de las necesidades particulares que motivan a la administración pública para su adquisición, y que se abordan en su Art. 39, siendo estas: (a) licitación o concurso público; (b) libre gestión; y (c) contratación directa.

A efectos de abordar más sobre la competencia en las compras públicas, centrémonos por ejemplo en los procedimientos de licitación o concursos públicos, y observemos por qué en este tipo de procedimientos pudiera existir ciertos riesgos de cometimiento de prácticas anticompetitivas, y qué acciones son pertinentes de tomar, a efectos de prevenirlas y combatirlas.

Es de considerar que los riesgos de colusión existen no solo en los mercados comunes o tradicionales, sino también en aquellos relativos a las compras públicas. Así, tales riesgos pudieran derivarse de aspectos inherentes a la normativa o la dinámica de desarrollo del procedimiento, pero también al propio actuar de los agentes económicos participantes. Por ejemplo, en algunos casos, los requerimientos normativos, los costos de participación, la transparencia de los procedimientos, y los deberes de publicación o divulgación, si bien contribuyen a disminuir los aspectos de corrupción y los abusos de discrecionalidad por parte de quien realiza las compras, pudieran también constituirse en elementos que faciliten la observancia entre los competidores, y que funcionen como mecanismos de control o fiscalización de posibles desviaciones de acuerdos colusorios, o limitan en cierta medida el ingreso de participantes.

Como vemos, la colusión entre competidores en licitaciones puede verse facilitada en algunos casos por el marco regulatorio y aspectos de la dinámica de los procedimientos, pero en la mayoría de los casos, está relacionado con las conductas adoptadas por los agentes económicos, los cuales pueden ser por ejemplo, acuerdos sobre quién será el ganador; acuerdos en precios (incrementar, disminuir, mantener, de no negociar, de limitar los descuentos, etc.); acuerdos sobre quien ofrecerá en ciertos mercados (es decir, a clientes en específico, solo a ciertas dependencias, solo en delimitadas áreas geográficas, etc.).

Estas conductas de los agentes económicos que pretenden manipular la competencia en las licitaciones públicas, pueden manifestarse en diversas formas de actuar dentro de la configuración de los acuerdos colusorios entre competidores, por ejemplo, adoptando:

Ofertas complementarias (también llamadas de resguardo, de cortesía o simbólicas), suelen utilizarse como forma de manipulación de licitaciones por parte de los agentes económicos participantes, adoptando por ejemplo, acuerdos que aparenten una competencia genuina, pero con conductas en las que un competidor acepte presentar una oferta más alta que la del ganador designado; que un competidor presente una oferta que se sabe demasiado alta para ser aceptada; o que un competidor presente una oferta que contiene términos especiales que se sabe son inaceptables para el comprador.

Esquemas de supresión de propuestas, cuando uno o más agentes económicos acuerdan abstenerse de hacer una oferta, o a retirar una ya presentada.

Rotación del ganador, cuando los agentes económicos continúan ofertando, pero acuerdan sobre las características de la oferta para rotar a los ganadores en esquemas repetitivos de licitación.

Una vez abordadas las conductas y las formas en las que puede materializarse una manipulación de la competencia en las licitaciones públicas, corresponde advertir cuáles son las consecuencias para la competencia, la eficiencia económica y el bienestar de los consumidores, de la adopción de este tipo de prácticas. En este sentido, algunos de los efectos dañinos para la competencia se evidencian en que las licitaciones que han sido objeto de colusión entre los competidores, terminan siendo adjudicadas pagando precios superiores por los bienes y servicios, las condiciones ofertadas y la calidad de los bienes no es la óptima, registran un especial daño para las finanzas públicas, los recursos asignados a las instituciones que efectúan los procedimientos de licitación, y desvían los recursos de los contribuyentes. Así, este tipo de prácticas suele considerarse como de las más nocivas a la competencia.

Ahora bien, en el marco de la Ley de Competencia de El Salvador, este tipo de prácticas son prohibidas, y están contempladas como prácticas anticompetitivas entre competidores, descritas en el art. 25 de la LC, en específico, para el caso de acuerdo de precios en licitaciones, se encuentran en su letra ‘c’. En el caso de comprobarse la configuración de estas prácticas, los agentes económicos serían sujetos a una sanción en los términos descritos en los Arts. 37 y 38 LC.

En suma, la lucha contra los carteles y la colusión en licitaciones es una de las principales apuestas de los gobiernos y las agencias de competencia, y por lo tanto, es preciso la adopción de medidas que contribuyan a su detección, prevención y eliminación. Entre las medidas que pueden ser contempladas para una oportuna detección de colusión entre competidores en las licitaciones, se encuentran las capacitaciones que las agencias de competencia brindan a los encargados de las unidades de adquisiciones y contrataciones institucionales; el manejo de instrumentos de detección (checklists) que sirvan para generar luces de alerta respecto de situaciones que se alejan de la normalidad; la promoción de una cultura de competencia; y la creación de facilidades sobre cómo denunciar este tipo de prácticas.

  • Los comentarios en este artículo expresan la opinión del autor –

[1] Para hacer referencia a este tipo de erogaciones, existe una pluralidad de términos, a saber, compras públicas, compras gubernamentales, contrataciones públicas, compras del Estado, adquisiciones públicas, entre otros.


Lenin Cocar

El autor es licenciado en Economía Empresarial y licenciado en Administración de Empresas. Actualmente opta por un MBA y un Máster en Dirección Comercial. Funge como economista en la Unidad de Prácticas Anticompetitivas de la Intendencia de Investigaciones en la Superintendencia de Competencia de El Salvador.

Es catedrático universitario en área de pre grado en materias económicas y, anteriormente, se desempeñó como Economista en la Organización de Apoyo al Sector Productivo en las Negociaciones Comerciales Internacionales (ODASP), y como consultor economista en un proyecto de cooperación de la agencia GTZ.

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