toggle menu
Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo
Región en Blanco y Negro

¿Es hora de acabar con las propinas en Estados Unidos?

tip_bowl

Foto original: Steven Depolo

Por Mikel A. Alcázar
Como las películas de Hollywood o las hamburguesas, las propinas forman parte de la cultura popular contemporánea de los Estados Unidos. Utilizadas no solo como una simple gratificación por el trabajo bien hecho, sino en numerosas ocasiones como una parte significativa del propio salario de muchos trabajadores en el sector servicios, las propinas constituyen una tradición que, sin embargo, no convence a todos. El país, inmerso en la recuperación de la crisis y con una tasa de desempleo que ha caído hasta el 5,3%, celebra este lunes el ‘Labor Day’ (su particular Primero de Mayo) con un debate cada vez más latente: ¿estamos ante el principio del fin para las propinas en Estados Unidos?

Nada en la actualidad indica que las propinas, de origen medieval y europeo, llegaron a estar prohibidas en ciudades como Seattle o Memphis: hasta seis estadosaprobaron leyes para acabar con ellas a comienzos del siglo XX. El escenario a día de hoy es bien distinto. Aunque una encuesta afirma que el 95% de los estadounidenses está a favor de este sistema de propinas, cada vez son más las voces discordantes, sobre todo desde que algunas de las principales ciudades del país –empujadas por un movimiento ciudadano que crece progresivamente– han elevado el salario mínimo. Ante las desigualdades que en un mismo negocio pueden generarse entre quienes trabajan de cara al público y quienes lo hacen ‘entre bastidores’, algunos empresarios del sector servicios han reaccionado suprimiendo las propinas (elevando los precios de sus servicios para incrementar así los salarios de sus trabajadores).

Según un estudio de la Universidad de Cornell, el 44% de los estadounidenses preferiría que los trabajadores que les atienden en los restaurantes tuvieran mejores salarios, de tal forma que las propinas no fueran decisivas en sus ingresos. He aquí, en realidad, la esencia de la cuestión: ¿hasta qué punto debecaer sobre los hombros de los clientes una responsabilidad tan importante? ¿Por qué deben tener los comensales de un restaurante tanto poder sobre lo que un trabajador acabará ingresando por su actividad laboral?

Quienes están en contra de este sistema argumentan, entre otras cosas, que las propinas conforman un sistema poco transparente (también desde un punto de vista fiscal), fomentan la explotación laboral o que incluso generan gravesproblemas de desigualdad. Por el contrario, sus partidarios defienden, por ejemplo, que las propinas otorgan más poder a los consumidores, que son un incentivo para los trabajadores o que pueden desembocar en un muy buen salario. La propina “es un contrato social”, explica el profesor Michael Lynn: “Muchas personas trabajan en Estados Unidos con la expectativa de que se les dará propina”. Esa esperanza de obtener una buena gratificación es la que, para algunos consumidores, resultacontraproducente, pues en ocasiones provoca que los trabajadores (algunos meseros, por ejemplo) sean excesivamente “insistentes”.

Las cuantías de las propinas también forman parte de la discusión. Para un extranjero que llega a Estados Unidos, el sistema es sin duda confuso: ¿cuánto y a quién hay que dar un extra? En algunos países, como en muchos de América Latina, una propina del 10% al camarero de un restaurante supone una gratificación generosa, el premio a un buen trabajo. En Estados Unidos, por el contrario, ese porcentaje se asocia a un muy mal servicio: el comensal generalmente no está obligado a dejar propina, pero no hacerlo le causará probablemente una discusión en público y un sonrojo, incluso aunque el servicio haya sido realmente malo. Pese a sus detractores y a las confusiones que genera, este método de pago está totalmente arraigado en la sociedad estadounidense… ¿Será así siempre?


Esta columna fue originalmente publicada en el Blog Blog Factor Trabajo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID.

59 Replies to “¿Es hora de acabar con las propinas en Estados Unidos?

  1. aishwarya dice:

    Very Informative and useful… Keep it up the great work. I really appreciate your post.

    1. pacifica dice:

      I need some engver! Thanks

  2. very nice article dude! I really appreciate it.

  3. What a nice blog! I have enjoyed reading through the article. Nice Informative Post. Keep Updating more things for us.

  4. Thanks for sharing a great information…..

  5. Premium Logo Designers offers the best custom logo design services at affordable cheap logo designs company USA by professional logo designing in 24 hours.

  6. Many students find it hard to complete their finance assignment, thinking it to be a nightmare. You must have tried to find the best possible finance assignment help through an online medium, but it’s hard to choose out of so many companies. The reliable company will offer you 24/7 assistance and will be a responsible worker. Several institutions provide a vast amount of finance assignments to their students. With the help of finance courses, you’d learn about theoretical financial principles and how you have to apply that in the business field.

  7. I am really very happy to visit your blog. Now I am found which I actually want. Thanks a lot for sharing a piece of wonderful information which I am looking for a longer period of time.

  8. Get top dissertation writing services by professional dissertation writers. UK Diss Get discount on all your dissertation writing help orders today!

  9. Very useful post, Thanks for sharing. To get knowledge about stock market and Angel Broking Login kindly visit us:

  10. If a student has chosen to compose his essay paper as an online custom essay service provider he can focus on enhancing his professional knowledge. All Assignment Help UK offers not only essay writing services but also offer varieties of assignment help like Science assignment help, Management assignment help, Accounting assignment help, Dissertation help and so on.Don’t think too much and get your work done with the help of Assignment Help today.

  11. This was my first blog on your website. I would like to say that the quality of the content is up to mark. Thanks a lot for sharing this. I will surely read all the blogs from now.

  12. phongkham dice:

    11 Thai Ha Men’s and Gynecology Clinic, located in Area 11 Thai Ha, Dong Da, Hanoi, is a specialized clinic licensed by the Hanoi Department of Health to operate. This is a quality destination for many male friends in the capital and neighboring provinces. Carrying the moving motto «Dedicated to treating diseases – wholeheartedly serving», the system of medical experts and medical staff is constantly looking for ways to increase the reliability of medical examination and treatment, bringing fate and happiness for most men.

  13. Keep up the great piece of work, I read few content on this website and I believe that your websiteis very interesting and contains lots of good info.

  14. Thanks for sharing valuable information with us about mlsu ba 2nd year result

  15. What a nice blog! I have enjoyed reading through the article. Nice Informative Post. Keep Updating more things for us.

  16. My new addiction, I really love it.

  17. all about of BCA full form.

  18. Satta king dice:

    One of the common ways to achieve the betting game of satta king gali disawar is to effectively combine players prediction and customary sense while betting. It’s satta king’s assumption which will produce the results, but one has got to use guesswork and customary sense to urge the simplest results. Experts of satta king can help players by providing various sorts of tips also as satta king charts like the disawar satta charts for players benefit.

  19. Satta Matka dice:

    Sattakingagency online is a kind of gambling or lottery that started before India’s independence. Satta Matka, Sattaking is a full-fledged lottery game that began in the 1950s. Now, it is a very popular game. Though gambling is illegal in India, still many people participate to try their luck. There are some lotteries and horse racing games that are legal in the country.

  20. thanks for posting this article

  21. MING dice:

    thanks for posting this article.

    https://joinlive77.com/

  22. James Willey dice:

    Would you like to have all the homework done for you? I have wanted this for a long time and was able to recently find a site where people will help take my class for me. Everything happens very simply and quickly. Today you left a request – tomorrow everything is ready and by the way they will do everything very efficiently. I don’t know what else to tell you, because everything has already been said and there is simply nothing to add. Definitely you should try this service.

  23. Christopher Hardy dice:

    Get online homework help from best writers to address do your homework for me or Hire Someone to Do My Homework request? Entrust any task to academic experts.

  24. Prateek dice:

    thanks for posting this article.

  25. MOTIVATION KING – Quotes | Wishes Images | Shayari Status | WhatsApp Dp

    Motivation Quotes

    Collect Of Motivational Quotes, Inspirational Quotes, Life Quotes, Wishes, Greetings And lot Of Biographies Quotes And Sayings For Motivate Yourself.

  26. hizmet olarak güzel teşekkür ederim

  27. Couponsva dice:

    This is Couponsva, a professional blogger I enjoy writing on multiple callings with a firm grip on specialty include digital marketing, affiliate marketing, entertainment, and e-commerce blogs.

  28. James Jackson dice:

    Hmm , very interesting thoughts! Don’t you think it’s worth posting these thoughts on Instagram? After all, this social network is now very popular. By the way, I advise you to buy instagram followers in order to quickly increase their number and promote your account to the top.

  29. Searching for online class help near me? Take your online classes has the best online class takers who provide instant help with online classes, courses & exams.

  30. yorum fırsatı için teşekkürler

  31. yorum fırsatı için teşekkürler

  32. Jennifer Garner dice:

    Thanks for sharing

  33. This is a topic that is close to my heart..

  34. George Mark dice:

    Nice post. Thank you to provide us this useful information. Loki Jacket

Responder a Facebook Account Recovery Cancelar la respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *